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英国paper代写-Personal Space and Eye Contact

2017-09-08 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇英国paper代写-Personal Space and Eye Contact讲了在日常生活中,个人空间是无处不在的常见现象。例如,人们通常选择图书馆,公共汽车和餐厅中没有人的单人座位或座位。人们总是保持一定距离。人们使用一定距离来保护自己的部分,保护自身的安全。本篇paper代写由51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。


In the daily life, personal space is the very common phenomenon which can be found everywhere. For example, people generally choose the single seat or the seat where no one around in the library, bus and restaurant. People always keep the certain distance away from each other. The certain distance is used by people to protect their own parts and protect their self-security. Similarly, the group also keeps the certain space distance from other groups. The individuals of group also reciprocally maintain their relatively fixed parts among members of group. This kind of phenomenon is very common particular in relative the spacious square and other public places. A lot of times human beings communicate with others by the use of space. In the meanwhile, this kind of space behavior is also a key condition to impact people’s feelings to others. Psychologists are more concerned about the relationship between human beings and space. The personal space is one of the basic problems to discuss. Throughout the psychology field, personal trade has become an interdisciplinary subject of the interpersonal relation psychology, environmental psychology, social psychology and other subjects. Its research covers lots of aspects such as clinical psychology, personality psychology, etc. 

Sommer (1969) defined the notion of personal space. The personal space means the invisible area that surrounds a person’s body which others are not allowed invading or intruding (Sommer, 1969). Hayduk (1983) defined personal space that personal space as the area which individuals maintain around their bodies but no one could intrude their areas, otherwise, the intruded behavior would make the individuals discomfort (Hayduk, 1983). In conclusion, the theory of personal space is the psychology research range. People regard their physical space where surrounds them as one of their parts. The region named person space. There are many factors can affect the personal space, including personal factor, cultural background factor, environmental factor and so forth.  

Eye contact is one of the common non-verbal communications in interpersonal communication. The significance of eye contact in human communication has drawn a great number of psychologists to pay attention it and study its effect in the personal space. The eye contact produces a great influence on enlarging or reducing the personal space violations. Along with the proximity increasing, the effect of eye contact will reduce gradually. Moreover, the increasing proximity will make eye contact become uncomfortable in a way or will suggest people to avoid to do that.  Therefore, people consciously reduce times to gaze each other directly when their proximity increases (Argyle & Dean, 1965). For instance, male subjects would show less contact than females. To compare with male eye contact or face-to-face interaction, Argyle also explored that females maintain loner glances and they have a trend to take part in the mutual eye contact accordingly. Buchanan, Goldman and Juhnke (1977) showed that males would violate their personal space and divert their gaze when others (males or females) make eye contact with them. Female also would divert their gaze and violate their personal space when males make eye contact with them. Males violate their personal space when the others (males and females) make directing eye contact with them. However, females violate their personal space or divert their gaze on the condition that males make eye contact with them (Buchanan, Goldman & Juhnke, 1977).

The crowdedness is in of the important subject of environmental psychology researches. The crowdedness refers to a kind of unpleasant, depressive and negative emotion, which produces on the condition that people suffer restriction (Li, 2010). The western psychologists Clements and Carl (1979) think crowdedness can cause disease and affect individual or the whole social life. The crowded city generally makes people think unhealthy outward appearance and violent behaviors ((Clements & Carl, 1979). Crowdedness is the uncomfortable psychological state which relates to the demand which more than practical space. Moreover, it also relates to the condition where people stayed at that time. Although sometimes people own enough space, they would feel crowded when they want to stay along. Loo (1979) explored the relations between the crowdedness and personal space which based on the sample of 5-year-old boys. Loo predicted that personal space caused avoidance behaviors but not related to the self-reported impact or perceptions. Latter, the modest findings were different from his prediction. The findings of Loo and Kennelly (1978) were contrast sharply with his prior findings. In 1978, Loo and Kennelly chose the 10-year-old boys who owned larger personal space and lager spatial spaces. They developed stronger reactions to crowded conditions. For all their responses were similar to boys who had smaller personal spaces. Therefore, they found that children had similar negative reactions and uncomfortable feelings to crowded conditions no matter with larger or smaller personal spaces. Hence, Loo’s findings could be regard as the evidences to revel the personal spaces which existed close relations with crowded conditions.  

There were a lot of findings on personal space in the past. However, the scientists and psychologists became concentrating on the relations between eye contact and personal space. Eye contact as a variable can lead people to violate their personal space or not. Making eye contact directly may cause people feel uncomfortable so that increase their personal space. The effect of eye contact on personal space existed difference between males and females. The studies of Exline (1963) reported that people increase their personal space when make eye contact with others. The important reason is that make eye contact with strangers which make them uncomfortable. Moreover, the frequency of eye contact is not adequate between males and females. The times of latter are greater than the latter (Exline, 1963).  

The hypothesis posited that participants will desire a lager or more demand for personal space on the condition two (no eye contact) than the condition one (eye contact). In the condition one, participant will move toward to a confederate who maintains eye contact with participants. The participant will stop once they felt uncomfortable. In the condition 2, the participants will also move toward a confederate, however, participants cannot have eye contact with a confederate but just see the back of confederate. Likewise, the participants will stop when they felt unpleasant. The participant’s size of personal space in the experiment is equal to the distance (measuring in centimeters) leaving by the participant.

Method

Participants

The sample consisted of two coditions. The condition one and condition two were all made up of 149 participants which was the sum total of students. The participants of the condition one (M=62.54, SD=44.93) and condition two (M=35.9, SD=31.04) all included 101 females aged between 17 to 23 and males 48 aged 17 to 21 years. The participants nationnatily was listed as follows: China (100), Hong Kong, China (22), Japan (4), Korea (5), Malaysia (4), Nepal (2), Singapore (3), Taiwan, China (3), Thailand (1), United Arab Emirates (2), Vietnam (3). The participants were students who participate in the experiment of their own accord without any payment. The experiment also signed informed consent before the experiment. The assistant in the experiment is in charge of asking the participants basic information about age, gender, nationality. The confederates are responsible to take record the basic information and measure the distance between confederates and participants. The confederates in the experiment were all males and the assistants were females expect in the classroom BS1. 


|Table 1 

Details of Assistants, Confederates, and Rooms for All Experiments.


Class Role Age Gender Nationality

BSf1 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 18 M China

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 18 M Hong Kong

Confederate 19 M China

BSf2 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 18 F China

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 21 F Korea

Confederate 20 M Ecuador

BSf3 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 19 F Hong Kong

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 18 F China

Confederate 20 M Botswana

BSf4 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 19 F China

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 19 F Singapore

Confederate 19 M China

BSf5 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 19 F China

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 19 F Hong Kong

Confederate 20 M China

BSf6 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 18 F China

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 18 F Malaysia

Confederate 18 M Malaysia

BSf7 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 18 F Vietnam

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 20 M China

Confederate 19 M China

BSf8 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 19 F China

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 19 F Hong Kong

Confederate 19 M China

BSf9 Assistant 1 (Recorder) 18 F Singapore

Assistant 2 (Measurer) 25 F Saudi Arabia

Confederate 19 M Hong Kong

|Table 2

Details of Rooms, Dates and Time for All Experiment.


Class Rooms used Day of experiment Time

BSf1 Level 7 Lunch room and R 7.3 Tuesday 4-5pm

BSf2 Level 7 Lunch room and R 7.3 Tuesday 9 - 10am

BSf3 Level 7 Lunch room and R 7.3 Monday 4 - 5pm

BSf4 Level 3 staff room and R 3.5 Monday 2 - 3pm

BSf5 Level 7 Lunch room and R 7.3 Thursday 11 - 12pm

BSf6 Level 3 staff room and R 3.5 Monday 2 -3 pm

BSf7 Rm 3.5 and corridor Monday 9-10am

BSf8 Level 3.9 staff room and 3.5 Wednesday 9 -10am

BSf9 Level 3.9 staff room and 3.5 Thursday 11-12pm

Materials

The experiment needed materials to assist with the research which. Assistant used tapeline to measure the distance where participants stand away confederate. Assistant used masking paper tape to sign the specific location where participants stop. Recorder used the recording sheet to keep a record about participants’ basic information about nationality, age, gender and the distance from participants to confederate in the experiment. Assistant prepared an envelope consisting of numbers which are used to determine participants’ order. 

Procedure

For all the experiment was tested in different classes at different times in different days, the whole procedure of the experiment was all the same for all classes. In order to gain and confirm the consent by the participants who were invited, they should sign permission forms prior to the experiment. Consequently, the supervisor would tell the  experiment’s purpose and would explain the completed procedure of the experiment. Moreover, the supervisor would inform the details of the experiment, and including the data, location, method and so forth. In the experiment, the supervisor chose three people who were in charge of different works during the experiment. The first one called assistant 1 who measured the distance from confederate to volunteer. The second one called assistant 2 who took charge for taking record such as participant’s age, nationality and distance. The third one was the confederate. The supervisor prepared an envelope containing different numbers. The participants were asked for pick out optionally one number from the envelope, and the number would decide their specific order in the experiment. 

The experiment started when all the participants stood outside of the room in order to assure the objective and accuracy of the experiment consequence. Firstly, the assistant 1 called the number which participants has pick out previously, and the corresponding participant would get into the room according to the number. Other participants formed a line in order and waited for enter the room. First of all, the assistant would ask for participant’s basic information about sex, age and nationality and then recorder would record these statistics accordingly in the room. The participants would be guide and instruct about the location where they should stand. Next, in the condition one, participants would walk to confederates and participants would maintain eye contact. Participants would decide where and when to stop on the condition that they felt the personal space was compromised. The assistant 1 would measure the distance where the participant left from the confederate and then the assistant 2 recorded the distance.

Finally, the participants went out of the room and waited outside. The condition 1 was finished when all participants accomplish the experiment. The second condition would begin after the finish of the condition one. The procedure of condition 2 likes the condition 1. The only difference between condition 1 and condition 2 was that the participants had no eye contact with confederate but only faced the back of confederate.   

Results

The participants of two conditions were measured their personal space in the experiment. The t-test = 7.330989, which was higher than the critical one tailed test = 1.655215. That meant the result was not accident and the result was important. To compare with the condition one, no eye-contact of the condition two (M=35.9, SD=31.04) was lower than eye contact (M=62.54, SD=44.39). It tests the hypothesis that the value of mean with no eye-contact was lower than the value of mean with eye contact. (See Table 3).

|Table 3

The Experiment Data of Condition One (eye-contact) and Condition Two (no eye- contact)

Age Gender Nationality Distance with eye-contact

Condition one (cm) Distance without eye-contact

Condition two (cm) difference

21 F Korea 70 58 12

18 F China 188 24 164

18 F China 52 62 -10

18 F China 137 64 73

17 F China 68 85 -17

18 F China 50 30 20

20 M China 79 52 27

21 M China 72 38 34

18 F Malaysia 67 48 19

19 M China 9 33 -24

19 M China 70 27 43

19 F China 60 40 20

18 M China 18 6 12

18 F China 95 54 41

19 F Hong Kong 6 1.5 4.5

18 F China 20 0 20

19 F China 43 6 37

20 F Korea 40 9 31

17 F China 79 27 52

18 F Malaysia 10 10 0

19 F China 69 21 48

18 F Korea 38 12 26

18 F Vietnam 15 8 7

18 F China 94 63 31

18 M China 18 10 8

19 M China 18 4 14

18 F China 38 9 29

19 F China 130 60 70

21 M China 1 26 -25

19 F China 25 11 14

18 F China 13 11 2

19 F Singapore 36 38 -2

19 F China 41 19 22

18 F China 118 45 73

18 F China 48 20 28

18 F China 58 36 22

22 F Singapore 84 69 15

18 M Hong Kong 64 24 40

18 M China 57 9 48

19 M Hong Kong 5 0 5

18 F China 39 32 7

18 F China 110 56 54

19 M Hong Kong 11 0 11

18 F China 33 23 10

17 F Vietnam 37 43 -6

20 F Japan 63 46 17

19 F Taiwan 150 52 98

18 F China 26 63 -37

18 M China 87 16 71

18 M Hong Kong 15 10 5

18 F United Arab Emirates 54 54 0

19 M Taiwan 128 60 68

20 M China 134 168 -34

20 M Vietnam 93 30 63

19 F Hong Kong 78 8 70

17 F Malaysia 13 10 3

18 M China 31 20 11

18 F China 70 26 44

22 F China 108 35 73

18 F China 141 34 107

18 F China 101 18 83

18 F China 31 22 9

18 F China 79 0.5 78.5

19 F Hong Kong 64 26 38

19 F China 26.5 54 -27.5

18 F China 47 48.5 -1.5

18 M China 210 66.5 143.5

18 M China 83 30 53

18 F China 24.5 50 -25.5

20 M China 31 42 -11

21 F Nepal 103 47 56

19 F China 30 26 4

19 F China 56 67.5 -11.5

19 F Hong Kong 69 61 8

17 F China 60 49 11

18 M Hong Kong 30 9 21

18 M Hong Kong 205 14.5 190.5

18 F China 103 52.5 50.5

17 M China 0 60 -60

23 F Nepal 145 190 -45

18 F China 115 42 73

20 F China 96 33 63

19 F China 89 5 84

21 M China 64 98 -34

18 M China 10 0 10

17 F China 84 124.5 -40.5

18 F China 36.5 6 30.5

19 F China 46 33 13

18 M China 33 29 4

20 M Hong Kong 33 9.5 23.5

19 F Singapore 25 35 -10

20 M Japan 64 40 24

18 M Hong Kong 4.5 0 4.5

19 F Thailand 68 43 25

18 M China 72 102 -30

19 F Hong Kong 18 58.5 -40.5

17 F China 77.5 65 12.5

17 F China 53 25 28

19 F China 58.5 17 41.5

18 F China 103 28 75

20 F Korea 56 57 -1

19 F China 34 33 1

18 F China 38 31 7

17 F Hong Kong 98 49.5 48.5

18 M China 6 139 -133

19 F Hong Kong 157 8 149

20 M Korea 64 50 14

19 F China 112 6 106

18 F China 142 9 133

18 F China 53 35 18

20 M China 13 0 13

17 F China 107 65 42

18 F China 123 56 67

18 M China 147 67 80

18 F China 46 21 25

19 M Hong Kong 144 21 123

17 M Hong Kong 41 87 -46

19 M Hong Kong 62 30 32

20 M Hong Kong 23 32.5 -9.5

17 F China 7 4 3

18 M China 13 0 13

18 F China 202.5 52 150.5

19 F China 42.5 25 17.5

17 M Hong Kong 32 44 -12

17 F China 23 14 9

18 F China 66 27 39

18 F China 59 76 -17

19 F Taiwan 16 11.5 4.5

18 F China 106.5 25 81.5

19 M China 6.5 0 6.5

18 F China 4 0 4

21 F China 50 14.5 35.5

18 M Malaysia 6 21.5 -15.5

19 F China 127 91 36

19 F China 66 21 45

17 F China 47 15 32

18 F China 117 71 46

19 F United Arab Emirates 67 84 -17

20 M Japan 20 4 16

19 F Japan 83 50 33

17 F Hong Kong 78 33 45

18 M China 80 34 46

21 F China 45 33 12

20 M Hong Kong 20 0 20

20 M China 7 5 2

20 M China 55 9 46

18 F China 66 36 30

18 F China 31 9 22

20 F China 38 59 -21


Discussion

In the results of experiment, participants have a trend to avoid eye contact directly with confederate. Moreover, different gender of participant behaved differently. The females maintain eye-contact longer than the males in the experiment the both conditions. When the participants made eye contact with confederate, they felt uncomfortable and they stop walking to the confederate in order to maintain their own personal space. The mean of condition one (with eye-contact) is 62.54 and the mean if condition two (with no eye-contact) is 35.9, the participants asked for greater personal space on the condition one than the condition two. That means participants in the experiment require more personal space or greater spatial distance on the condition that they make eye-contact than with no eye contact. The hypothesis was correct. 

In the experiment, the study took some variables such as distance, gender, nationality and age in consideration to ensure the experiment to achieve the desired results. In order to define more complexed and specific relationship between eye contact and persona space, the experiment ought to consist of more variables. In other words, some extraneous variables can play important roles to impact the experiment which beyond the previous expectation. In the sample of the experiment, there were a great amount of participants voluntarily joined the experiment to help the study to prove the hypothesis and to explore the relations between eye contact and personal space. 

Although the experiment considered many variables which may affect the objective and accuracy of the results, it was impossible to eliminate all interference factors. The confederates in the experiment were males, which cannot exclude the effect of gender when female participants made eye contact with male confederates. Therefore, the balanced proportion of male and female may appear different results.   

As a result, the experiment could become better on the condition that changed the construction of participants and put forward more hypotheses. Firstly, the male and female ratio was not very reasonable. The amount of female was far beyond than the amount of male. It was better to balance the proportion of genders. Secondly, the participants were all students. That meant the age structure was quite young. The experiment ought to consider widening the age groups. Finally, there were many extraneous factors that could impact the results of experiment, and including crowdedness, density, facial expression, height and so forth.       

The experiment came up with new areas of personal space and eye contact, which provided references to the further study. The further study would focus on some unreasonable places so as to improve them. Eye contact is one of the parts of facial expressions. The further study would use more variables to define the facial expression whether influence people’s personal space such as smiling, anger, sadness, and solemn facial expressions. If confederate smiles to the participant, the participants would maintain eye-contact with confederate because confederate’s kindness and friendly release participant’s uncomfortable. These can affect the length of eye contact and can affect the personal space.

Reference

Argyle, M., & Dean, J. (1965). Eye-contact, distance and affiliation. Sociometry, 28(28), 289-304.

Clements, Carl B. (1979). Crowded prisons: a review of psychological and environmental effects. Law & Human Behavior(3), 217-225.

Dosey, M. A., & Meisels, M. (1969). Personal space and self-protection. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 11(2), 93-7.

Exline, R. V. (1959). Exploration in the process of person perception: visual interaction in relation to competition. Urbana ILL University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 31(1), 1-20.

Li, Y. (2010). Environmental psychological feelings and personal space. Value Engineering. 4 (4), 123-125.

Hayduk, L. A. (1983). Personal space: where we now stand. Psychological Bulletin, 94(2), 293-335.

Loo, C., & Kennelly, D. (1979). Social density: its effects on behaviors and perceptions of preschoolers. Environmental Psychology & Nonverbal Behavior, 3(3), 131-146.


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