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“非标准”工作将逐渐取代标准工作-Dissertation代写

2017-01-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

英国Paper代写论文精选:“‘非标准’工作将逐渐取代标准工作”,这篇论文主要讲述了在现代经济中,“非标准”工作正在成为标准工作,甚至会在将来取代标准工作的现象。

 

In the current world economy, the concept of non-standard work has risen in the current times as compared to standard work. A good number of employed people still have a single full-time job, but there is a slow decline due to the various forms of non-standard jobs that are increasing. Some people prefer part time work so that they can get time to engage in other activities. Over the years there has been own account self-employment increase as well as contract or temporary work agreements in the society. Since the mid of the century, the level of people who are in more than one job has being increasing. Employers in public and private sectors have attempted to raise their flexibility as well as reduce costs through making greater use of contract labour, temporary and part time labour. Based on this trend, the modern economy is losing standard jobs and working with non-standard jobs that will eventually become standard, (Felstead et al, 1999)

 

The booming UK economy, as well as a strong market in the late 1990s, had benefits to all workers. UK unemployment rates reduced and the real wages grew even to people with the bottom line in the economy ladder. In overall, the tight labour markets had positive benefits to non-standard workers through raising wages, reducing job dissatisfaction and increasing pension. Despite these, the gaps in compensations are higher and substantial in non-standard jobs especially the on call employment, (Hunter et al., 1993).

 

Although most of people who were in lower end of the non-standard jobs were young people and women, the trend has changed, (OECD, 2002). More people are going for non-standard jobs and leaving standard jobs due to various reasons. There was a time when non-standard jobs were for less educated people, but trends have changed, and even people who are educated are going for non-standard jobs that have turned to be standard jobs in the economy. Although women are over-represented in temporary works, gender differences are the key aspects that are experienced in some few countries. The difference has been reduced due to the high concentrations of temporary jobs are based on manual jobs. In a study conducted by Rodgers and Rodgers (1989), the characteristics of those who are better off are different from the worse off characteristics pop.The above stated characteristics apply to non-standard workers, and they are likely to be stronger in the future. Modern economy is changing because people are going for nonstandard jobs as compared to standard jobs. In tradition working system, people were looking for standard jobs and leaving nonstandard jobs to women. Non-standard jobs are currently well paying and some are in the same range level with standard jobs. Since nonstandard jobs are not commanding and wanting compared to standard jobs, people prefer to go for the non-standard jobs. Contractors in the modern economy are going for options that are flexible with their employment and options that help them save on costs of their operations. Compared to standard jobs, nonstandard jobs are becoming fame and increasing in the modern economy where they have replaced the standard jobs, (Hunter et al, 1993).

 

With no doubts, the types of jobs that are in any given economy reflect the stipulated interaction of the demand by firms for labour to work on the production activities, the institutional framework, and the supply of labour by households. Institutional, demand side, and supply side factors interact in different ways based on different forms of non-standard jobs although not necessary to happen in equal ways. Employers in the modern economy are the instigators of the key moves to change labour hire practices, as well as working arrangements in their organizations. The contrasting theories of demand side and supply side are both having considerable empirical support. Based on the findings of international research, the supply side factors may be predominant in development of people going for non-standard jobs, (Segal, 2010). The less desirable or more contingent the form of non-standard job based in conditions and pay, the more dominant the demand side factors. It has reached a point where the demand side factors of non-standard jobs have overthrown the supply side factors in the same setting thus making the standard job setting lack value to most employers. The modern economy has developed different factors that trigger independent contractors as well as other self-employed people to focus on non-standard workers because they are available and willing to undertake duties in the expected and defined manner, (Presser, 2003).

 

In talking about nonstandard jobs, there are different factors that we must consider that have influenced its increase as compared to standard jobs. Union influence, bargaining power, worker preferences, and production technologies are among factors that influence non-standard jobs in the society. For instance, based on the organization production technologies, organizations may operate using different cost of working with non-standard job seekers. An organization says in the hospitality industry may require employees to work for longer hours, and this will contribute to the establishment of different opportunities for the non-standard job seekers. Based on the issue of bargaining power, a good level of employers has a relative advantage in bargaining power over workers, (Beck, 2000). In this case, the jobs offered to the population tend to reflect on the employer’s preferences. Study shows that in work or jobs where employees have a relative advantage in the issues of bargaining power over employers, there are high chances that jobs tend to reflect workers and not the employers preferences. Based on the non-standard jobs, employees in the former situation are likely to lower workers, (Ko & Yeh, 2013).

 

The wages in full-time jobs and non-standard jobs are almost the same thus workers are going for jobs that are flexible. Large wage growth in jobs that are not standard has reduced the size of the wage gap between standard and non-standard jobs. By narrowing, it has facilitated the development and increase in the level of individual who are seeking non-standard jobs instead of standard jobs, (Horrell, et al 1989).

 

In the current economy, employers prefer the use of non-standard jobs simply because they want to engage in the issue of avoiding the designation of their workers. For standard jobs, employees tend to have some regulatory and legal rights that create costs to the employer. The level of such costs may influence the extent under which organizations seek to avoid employee status and the result they go for non-standard jobs. Flexibility staffing arrangements in organizations are contributors of non-standard jobs in the society because firms are focusing on the use of factors that allow them to be flexible in their undertakings at all times. The increase in the use of flexible staffing arrangements by firms, as well as the concomitant realization for the employers motivations, are enough factors that make organizations focus on non-standard jobs that have become standard in the modern economy, (Atkinson, 1984)

 

Brosnan and Scully (2002) in their study found out that the reason commonly given for using flexible staff arrangements in business activities are linked to the traditional aspects of minimizing costs plus accommodating fluctuations in absences in staff and workload thus going for non-standard job aspects, there are various reasons why firms seek non-standard job options, and they are related to the main source of demand for on call agencies and workers temporaries. In the past, most firms did not apply alternative work arrangements to screen employees for full time positions, (Hakim, 1987). The issue of saving on benefits costs becomes the key factor to determine employers use of organization flexible staff arrangements. In the modern economy, workers who are in flexible staffing arrangements, they are in no way covered by regulations that govern benefits. They also do not get key benefits that are offered to standard workers, and this becomes the appropriate options for employers. In such a move, most organizations have established a way where they can apply non-standard working, because they offer different benefits to the organization, (Felstead, 2004).

 

Non-standard jobs are said to offer opportunities for firms especially in the current service industries hence more firms are advocating non-standard jobs and leaving standard jobs. With non-standard employment options, the issue of labour deployment is allowed to be tailored during the times of peak demand as well as times of fluctuating demand. Non-standard jobs allow employers or firms to avoid training costs simply because employees who seek these jobs are already trained from their past activities. Although firms enjoy the benefits of avoiding training costs, they claim that the benefits that they enjoy are offset by the activities and challenges that they face in managing non-standard labour. Such moves tend to reduce chances of mutual commitment between their workers and employers, (Booth et al, 2000).

 

A good number of employers in the modern economy are using non-standard labour so as to increase their operational flexibility at times when they are faced with uncertain operating and workflows environments. The flexibility has enabled the employment-population to bargain on weekly and daily over hours in their activities. Temporary, zero-hour and causal contract agreements are used by organizations to reduce risks and labour costs, and that has enabled the issue of non-standard jobs to become standard in the economic setting, (Ackroyd & Thompson, 1999). It is with the help of using the new aspect firms are trailing new employees where they determine on the contract performance and poor performance tend to lapse instead of having them dismissed. In evidence provided by the department of labours, it is clear that firm interviews indicate different responses between larger and small firms. A flexible workforce is seen as a suitable option in responding to changing demands in the future thus developing a situation that facilitates non-standard jobs more than standard jobs in the society, (Rasell & Appelbaum, 1997).

 

On the supply side of the modern economy, there are some workers who are more responsive to the aspect of non-standard jobs while there are those who are not. Understating employee’s motivation for engaging in different forms of non-standard work is essential as well as their satisfaction that is linked with the employment to determine on their preference level. Results from the US bureau of labour statistics show that employees are contingent in the working environment because they have different temporary jobs because of different reasons either financial or personal reasons, (Kalleberg et al., 1997). Preference for a flexible schedule due to family, school, as well as other needs, hope to get a permanent employment position, and need for additional income are some of the reasons that call for non-standard jobs compared to standard jobs. A good number of employees work in temporary jobs for they have no choice, not they wanted to be in that environment, but personal reasons ended them to such situations, (Segal, 2010).

 

In the narrowest estimate, half of independent workers in the modern economy prefer working for non-standard jobs and not standard jobs due to personal and financial reasons. Although temporary workers are less satisfied with their work compared to permanent workers, non-standard jobs are increasing because employees who select such moves manage to work flexibly because they have other activities that they are supposed to attend and handle at all times. The dissatisfaction of non-standard jobs is commonly linked to pay and job security and not matters of flexibility. Direct relationship between non-standard jobs and its growth in the economy shows that most workers prefer more than one job that gives them enough flexibility in their activities, (Tilly, 2006).

 

Study indicates that institutional, demand side, and supply side factors help explain the growth of non-standard jobs in the current economy. In respect to supply side factors, women and young people in the modern economy have assisted in the growth of non-standard jobs. The increase in women and young people in the workforce plus their propensity helps growth in non-standard jobs especially in part-time work and family responsibilities. An increase in young people in the working population counts to the rise in the non-standard workforce. Demand related factors also account to the growth of the non-standard workforce in the modern economy. Desire of firms for a more flexible labour based on the changing product market conditions facilitates non-standards jobs. Study show developed economies have made a shift of production goods away and in services thus casual and part-time work has always assisted handle the outcomes of these situations. Non-standard jobs help workers increase flexibility in production and firms may apply non-standard employees to transfer economic risk to the workforce. Another thing is that workers in non-standard jobs account for fewer costs, and there are opportunities that they can be paid less as compared to standard employees who are handling same tasks, (McGovern et al., 2004).

 

Some institutional factors such as regulatory arrangements and minimum wage requirements may facilitate the growth of non-standard jobs in the modern economy. With no doubts, a climate of greater labour market flexibility and an easing of labour laws may result to an increase in non-standard jobs. In summing up, determining the causes of growth of non-standard employment is a challenging empirical situation that required extensive research, (Sennett, 1998).

 

The concept of non-standard work has risen in the current times as compared to standard work. Most people prefer part time work so that they can get time to engage in their own activities. Everyone in the society is going for non-standard jobs and leaving standard jobs due to various reasons. Non-standard jobs are said to offer opportunities for firms especially in the current service industries hence most firms are advocating non-standard jobs and leaving standard jobs. Institutional, demand side, and supply side factors interact in different ways based on different forms of non-standard jobs although not necessary to happen in equal ways. Institutional factors such as regulatory arrangements and minimum wage requirements may facilitate the growth of non-standard jobs in the modern economy.

 

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