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Paper代写:Open field system in England

2019-11-28 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Open field system in England讨论了英国的敞田制。敞田制指的是中世纪欧洲所盛行的一种耕作制度,它将土地划为条田形式分配给农民,农作物收获后,农民需要将自己的田地开放,供大家共同放牧使用,其中还包括公共地和荒地。敞田制是英国农业史上最重要的土地制度之一,但敞田制的分布在地域上是有差别的,总体来说,西北和西南地区较少见,而以米德兰地区最为盛行。后来英国的国策开始转向重商主义,农牧混合的敞田制已不能满足英国社会经济的发展需要,敞田制开始其衰败的历程,逐渐在英国废除。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Open field system,英国敞田制,paper代写,英国论文代写,代写

In discussing the relationship between the British land system and agricultural development, the open field system is necessary. The open field system has been in Britain for a long time since its birth. However, with the development of social productivity, open field system inevitably goes to decline. The decline of open fields in England had a profound effect on the development of agriculture. The decline of open-field system has a positive impact on the development of agricultural labor force, changes in farmland and the extension of agricultural policies, making agricultural development more and more meet the requirements of society, thus promoting the all-round progress of British society.

With its unique geographical location and historical track, the land system in Britain has become a hot topic for many scholars to study, and the open field system has been paid close attention to by the academic circle. After the 16th century, great changes took place in the land system in England. The open-field system began to decline, and enclosure gradually rose, resulting in rapid changes in the land system. At the same time, the British agricultural production level has been rapidly improved, which has prepared a substantial material foundation for the great changes in the whole society. Therefore, it is of great reference significance to discuss the positive influence of the decline of open field system on the development of agriculture in Britain. Although domestic and foreign scholars have long debated about the origin and nature of open field system in Britain, this does not prevent us from studying other aspects of open field system. The impact of the decline of open field system on agricultural development is mainly in three aspects: labor force, farmland and policy.

Open field system refers to a farming system prevailing in medieval Europe, which divided the land into separate fields for farmers. After the harvest, farmers needed to open their fields for common grazing, including public lands and wasteland. A famous agricultural historian, jean? Thurske summed up the open-field system with four elements: farmland and grassland are divided into tilled fields, and each farmer has a number of scattered tilled fields; During harvest and fallow periods, arable land and grassland should be open for public grazing; There are public pastures and unreclaimed land, where the landowners have the right to graze their cattle and gather firewood, peat, etc. The above activities shall be uniformly prescribed and managed by the manor court or the villagers' meeting. The second is most important. Thurske's summary clearly reveals the content and features of the open field system. Open field system is one of the most important land systems in the history of British agriculture, but its geographical distribution is different. Generally speaking, northwest and southwest regions are rare, while midland region is the most prevalent, so scholars mainly study open field system in midland region. Later, British national policy began to turn to mercantilism. The open field system of farming and animal husbandry was no longer able to meet the needs of British social and economic development. Open field system began its decline process and was gradually abolished in Britain. The main cause of the demise of open field was the development of the enclosure movement. According to statistics, the open-field system died out in the decade of 1865-1875. In 1878, the British enclosure investigation committee officially declared the end of open-field system.

The impact of the decline of open field system is reflected in the change of agricultural population. It has two different consequences. On the one hand, it makes some landowners lose their land. On the other hand, some landowners accept the loss of land, expand the land area they own, and can engage in production independently. According to the number of farmers evicted in parts of Britain in the 16th century, 5,815 farmers were evicted in nine counties, including nottinghamshire, warwickshire, leicestershire, northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, buckinghamshire, bedfordshire, Berkshire and lincolnshire. As the open-field system became more damaged, more farmers lost their land and became free laborers. The forced transfer of agricultural labor force to land owning farms accelerated the transformation of agricultural development model, which greatly improved the level of agricultural development. As for those who got land in the enclosure movement, they not only obtained more land resources, but also broke the forced rotation system implemented in the previous open field system. Landowners, freed from the constraints of rotational farming time and crop varieties, were able to grow crops on their land to maximise their own profits and to arrange agricultural production more rationally. Free agricultural production has brought rich benefits to landowners, greatly increased their enthusiasm for agriculture and injected strong impetus into agricultural development.

Open fields have obvious external features, and the fields are divided by ridges, furrows and other boundary dykes for the convenience of distribution to farmers. The fact that crops cannot be planted along these boundaries is a waste of arable land. When landowners concentrate their land for cultivation, they will more or less destroy these barriers. Although the area of cultivated land does not increase, the area of arable land actually increases. Moreover, Britain's population grew rapidly after the 18th century. According to statistics, the total population of the UK was about 6.5 million in 1700, but it rose to 105.01 million in 1801. In 1901, it reached 37 million, the rapid growth of population, which required a greater increase in agricultural output. Although the destruction of open field system has increased the enthusiasm of land owners and increased land output, it is far from enough to meet the needs of population growth. Moreover, enclosure increased the number of landless people accordingly, so expanding the cultivated land area and cultivating new land became the best choice for farmers at that time. According to wenlipeng, with the rapid growth of population in Britain after the mid-18th century, the increase in grain output was mainly achieved through the cultivation of more land, and as a result of the large amount of land clearing, a lot of inferior land was cultivated. A large amount of land clearing increased the area of farmland in the UK, resulting in a large increase in total agricultural output, providing a material basis for the further development of agriculture.

The destruction of open field system makes a large number of farmers lose the land they need to survive, and there is too much surplus labor force in villages. As a result of the deterioration of the living environment of the peasants, serious social unrest directly threatened the political stability. So the rulers had to issue a series of laws prohibiting destructive enclosure in order to maintain their rule. After the British revolution in the 17th century, representatives of landowners took power. The open field system seriously impedes the interests of the landowners, so it is damaged more comprehensively. Instead of banning the enclosure, the government issued laws to encourage the enclosure, making the enclosure movement more extensive. Such new regimes were consolidated, creating a stable external environment for the development of agriculture. In 1801, the general enclosure act was passed by the parliament as a legal safeguard for enclosure. Paul mans figure after investigation concluded that the 1720-1800 parliamentary enclosure law promulgated by the total number of 2121, 1800-1810, achieved the mandate enclosure peak, the decade total enclosure act no less than 906. As a result, large areas of land became enclosed, and open fields became less and less a part of Britain. A large number of enacting laws on enclosure fully reflected the government's support for agricultural development and provided a good policy guarantee for agricultural development.

Open field system for a long period of time for the development of British agriculture, its important contribution is recognized by domestic and foreign scholars. However, open field system, like all other systems, has its own history of development and decline. After the 16th century, under the trend of capitalist development, the land system in Britain has undergone tremendous changes. With the development of economy and society, open field system has not adapted to the needs of development, and the emergence of new land system is inevitable. When the enclosure movement began to appear, the open-field system was damaged and gradually narrowed its application scope in the British countryside, and finally disappeared in the British countryside. Open field system still had great influence on agriculture in its decay process, and promoted agriculture to continue to progress. It not only provided free labor force for agriculture, improved the enthusiasm of landowners, but also expanded the area of farmland and collected funds for agriculture. At the same time, it is also conducive to consolidating the political power, enabling the government to carry out measures to promote agricultural development, remove obstacles to further agricultural development and make adequate preparations for agricultural development.

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