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英国Paper代写:Network subculture

2019-11-26 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Network subculture,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了网络亚文化。亚文化是指二十世纪六七十年代,开始出现的一种对主流文化和精英文化进行颠覆和反抗的文化形态,是一群不满主流意识形态压迫,希望通过不同于主流价值观和生活方式来表达不满与反抗的特殊人群。随着社交媒体的出现,网络为亚文化提供了更好的展示空间和传播平台,成为当代亚文化传播的主要阵营之一,并涌现了大量虚拟的亚文化群体。新的网络群体,展现出了不同于以往亚文化群体的消极政治斗争,更多体现为一种自嘲、消极和无可奈何的颓废状态。

Subculture refers to a cultural form that began to subvert and resist the mainstream culture and elite culture in the 1960s and 1970s. It is a group of special people who are dissatisfied with the oppression of the mainstream ideology and hope to express their dissatisfaction and resistance through different values and lifestyles from the mainstream. With the emergence of social media, the Internet has provided a better display space and communication platform for subculture, becoming one of the main camps of contemporary subculture communication, and a large number of virtual subculture groups have emerged. The new network group shows the negative political struggle different from the previous subculture group, which is more reflected as a self-mockery, negative and helpless decadence.

With the rise of the Internet, media has reshaped people's living and lifestyle. Virtual cyberspace provides netizens with a free space for speech. Subculture is no longer a minority culture that is unknown and suppressed. Instead, it has become a widely accepted way of entertainment and emotional catharsis through self-mockery, rebellion and individuality. Different from the previous subculture, this network subculture and the mainstream culture are not binary antagonistic, and no longer resist the mainstream culture in terms of class and status, but gradually become a tool for merchants to seek benefits in the consumer society. Just as dick hebdiger of Birmingham school believes that the ultimate destination of subculture is to be expropriated and expropriated by all-pervasive business, which weakens the resistance and finally leads to death. Although the reality makes the subculture and the mainstream culture develop together in the exchange and consultation, the fact that the subculture is weakened by fighting has become an indisputable fact, and the mass spiritual confusion is also spreading rapidly.

According to meng dengying's article "a brief analysis of the formation history of the concept of" subculture ", the research on subculture can be divided into three historical stages from the 1930s to the present. The first stage is the Chicago school period before 1960s, focusing on the study of new social problems caused by the process of industrialization and urbanization in the United States, and describing the heterogeneity of emerging social groups in terms of gender, age, religion, occupation and class. The subcultural groups of this period were described as the antagonists of the mainstream culture, the vagrants and the disrespectful people who did not work. Chaotic, organized antisocial groups; It is a social group that is opposite to the mainstream consciousness and elite class, and has a strong destructive and anti-social nature. The second stage was the Birmingham school period from the 1960s to the end of the 20th century. At this time, the subculture was still regarded as a group that deviated from the mainstream cultural standards, but by introducing the concept of "culture" into the subculture study, the subculture was studied as a way of life rather than a hostile force. As the mid - 1970 - s, some scholars of Birmingham school integrated use of gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, "fix" theory of levi-strauss, althusser's ideological subject construction theory and the analysis method of bart's myth symbol will "subculture" show as a small group of daily life "meaningful form", as a small niche groups specific lifestyle symbol system - "style". That is, the "resistance ceremony" of subculture groups to the mainstream culture. Although the resistance of the elite culture to the subculture in the language description of this period was improved, the subculture itself still retained strong resistance to the mainstream values, such as skinheads, punks and hippies. Until the end of the 20th century, "subculture" entered the "post-subculture" era. In the new media environment, its political color gradually weakened and fell into the crisis of political incorporation and business remodeling.

Traditional communities have complete cultural characteristics and physical proximity. All members share the same value system and follow community rules, emphasizing organizational identity and belonging among members. Even if its values are not widely accepted, "outsiders" are not allowed to destroy, with strong community relations and strong resistance. For example, the hippies, skinheads, punks and other subcultures studied by the Birmingham school gathered in the street corners, parks, discos and other physical places to confront the mainstream through a series of rituals. , by contrast, network across time and space and virtual space, provides Internet users with an open space, without the constraints of traditional community rules and moral order, online communities reflect fragmentation, mixture, transient, and "politics" of "current status" wait for a characteristic, cut dependence on groups, people also weakened the group's ability to resist the outside world. In addition, the popularity of the Internet and people's dependence on the Internet also weaken the cohesion of real communities. From the "protest" to "network ridicule" this kind of resistance to the bourgeois exploitation ceremony can be seen. People today complain about their jobs, do what they're told, criticize what they're told, and accept what they're told. Through the way of online ridicule to vent the inequality in work, this seemingly large-scale opposition crowd, but virtual, transient and transient form of resistance, lack of central strength and lasting fighting ability. Networking groups the subversion of traditional group, as Steven reed, after the study of subculture theory to the interpretation of the concept of subculture, think "subculture is produced by the sub-culture theorists, not the other way to produce", and argues that new subculture study need to focus on Internet users in the construction of their identity when fragmentation and individualism.

German philosopher cassier believed that human beings are "symbolic animals", and human beings have realized "subjectivity" and formed culture in the process of creating and using symbols. Before the age of the Internet, as a label by academic subculture, through the description of the binary opposition, excluded from the mainstream culture of a group of rebel groups, think subculture from various kinds of structural contradictions in the society, and these structural problems are often present in a subordinate position in the group of the dominant class or rebellion and resistance in the form of ritual. Subcultural groups are divided into a series of inherent "resistance style" to break new identity, once accepted by the group, will show stubborn resistance. However, in the Internet era, binary opposition has become more complex, and the cultural concept of Birmingham period can no longer be used to explain the subculture in the network environment. Such as "ge you paralysis" and "buddhist youth", these emerging network languages have been widely recognized and spread, not only by students, young people, women and children and other vulnerable groups, but also by doctors, teachers, government officials and other elite groups. At this time of subculture, has evolved into self-expression, performance, entertainment of the game, in the self and the virtual space, this kind of culture is not openly "resistance" of existing mainstream culture form, more reluctant to direct "conflict" with parents and authority culture, they are just the resolution center and the authority of the virtual space as a temporary escape from mainstream culture "refuge" of depression. Subculture of this entertainment, mainly through the following means.

In the Internet era, the rules and moral pressure that subcultural groups receive in traditional society are eliminated by the virtual nature of the network. Everyone hopes to stand out from the crowd and display his own personality through stitching, parody, appropriation and other means. For example, emojis created with popular movies and TV series, variety shows, and cartoon characters are widely accepted on the Internet with humorous and funny language. Memes such as "I'm almost a wreck", "ge you paralysis" and "Pepe frog" have also gone viral.

Appears with the rapid development of market economy, China's growing class divide, increase the gap between rich and poor, young people suffer more and more social injustice, faced with high difficulty and high cost of housing, employment, pension burden, such as survival, most people live in the tension and pressure, the emergence of network, vent pressure created the conditions for them. Just like the current "mourning" culture, people get happiness and temporarily get rid of social pressure by satirizing traditional values and moral authority through funny language and humorous expression. However, such happiness and relief are only temporary spiritual satisfaction, and the fundamental problem of social contradictions has not been solved.

In the pre-internet era, the Chicago school regarded subculture as a special group of people as opposed to the mainstream culture. By the time of Birmingham, the researchers introduced the identity politics of vulnerable groups from the dimensions of class, generation, race and gender, and subculture was regarded as the "rejection" or "ritual" resistance to various forms of mass culture and the "incorporation" of mainstream society. The subculture of this period was clearly divided from the mainstream culture, and it had a clear attitude towards the "incorporation" of culture. In the Internet era, with the rise of globalization and consumerism, subculture began to interweave with commerce. The original "resistance" to the mainstream culture was gradually "incorporated" by commerce and remade into an interesting new subculture commercial form with entertainment characteristics. The concept of "subcultural capital" proposed by bourdieu helps to explain the economic logic of post-subculture in the era of commercial entertainment. He believes that when "decadence" and "playing cool" become a kind of "subcultural capital" advocated by young people nowadays, a series of cultural industry chains and "scenes" associated with "decadence" and "playing cool" will be born. This means that the subculture is regarded as a kind of product, and consumers can not only eliminate the decadence mood, but also bring the pleasure of playing cool and form a kind of consumption dependence. For example, the prevailing "mourning tea" and "negative energy coffee" seek young people's recognition through the cultural concept of "mourning", generate group resonance, and ignite the hot sales of a whole series of "mourning" products. At this time, subculture is no longer used as a tool of group confrontation, but shows its commercial value as a product. Depending on commercial capital, its independence and resistance ability will be restricted by business and become very small.

Subculture, as a group of members with different values and lifestyles from the mainstream culture, has its specific background of social contradictions. Through the confrontation and coordination with the mainstream culture, the balance between different classes and different groups can be achieved, which is the cultural factor to maintain social stability. However, in today's network society, due to the change of its group structure and the addition of commercial capital, the subculture gradually loses its unique personality and becomes a consumer product of the cultural market, which is produced and recreated in large quantities. Eventually, the subculture of the web will be produced over and over again, no longer resistant. Consumers become the ultimate dish man, to the spirit of belonging once again confused.

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