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paper代写-Horkheimer's critical theory of technological rationality

2019-11-06 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Horkheimer's critical theory of technological rationality,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了霍克海默技术理性批判理论。霍克海默技术理性批判理论是西方马克思主义批判理论的重要内容,它的存在具有其合理性和价值性。霍克海默对启蒙精神进行批判,实质上是对其异化进行批判。另外,霍克海默的意识形态批判不仅包括哲学、政治、道德、文化艺术,而且包括科学技术。

Horkheimer is the founder of Frankfurt school. His critical theory of technical rationality does not come out of thin air, but has its profound thoughts, which are deeply influenced by classical rationalism of Greece, lukacs, Marx and others. Enlightenment dialectics, co-authored by horkheimer and adorno, systematically discusses the basic viewpoints of the critical theory of technological rationality. Therefore, "enlightenment dialectics" has become the classical expression form of the critical theory of technological rationality of western marxism in the 20th century.

Horkheimer was born into a wealthy jewish business family. His father became cold, autocratic and harsh to him because of business competition, which filled him with a fear of his father's love; His mother was gentle and kind to him, and filled him with a longing for her love. This kind of family thought has a great influence on horkheimer, especially on his social critical theory.

From the second half of the 19th century, some western thinkers began to challenge technological rationality, and they began to analyze the materialization and alienation brought by technological rationality. Especially after the two world wars, the harm brought by technical rationality to human beings was fully exposed. Technical rationality made people become slaves from their masters, and the dominant position of technical rationality began to shake. Faced with the dilemma of technological rationality, the trend of criticism of technological rationality emerged in the west, and horkheimer's critical theory of technological rationality came into being.

All of Schopenhauer's works are pessimistic. Horkheimer understood philosophy through Schopenhauer, so horkheimer's philosophy was deeply influenced by Schopenhauer's pessimism. Some irrationalists, such as Rousseau and heidegger, feel very sad about the negative consequences brought by the development of science and technology. They criticize this life state and advocate returning to nature. Their romantic thoughts also have a transfer and influence on horkheimer's critical theory of technological rationality. Marx believed that the private ownership of capitalist society makes people alienated from their own labor products, labor activities, human nature and human beings. This alienation spirit of Marx was absorbed by horkheimer. Lukacs' materialization consciousness points out that science and technology is a materialization form of capitalist society, and analyzes the process of the loss of the status of the owner of the working class.

Horkheimer's criticism of the enlightenment spirit is essentially a critique of its alienation. With the development of enlightenment, elimination of myths and a more and more sober understanding of nature, human beings began to control, dominate and conquer nature through scientific and technological means. With the development of bourgeois commodity economy and the strengthening of bourgeois rule, the alienation of the enlightenment spirit occurred, and the alienation of the enlightenment spirit made rationality become instrumental. Instrumental rationality develops into a new myth, which moves towards the opposite side of itself. Enlightenment is liberated from the myth, and at the same time, it creates a new slavery and generates a higher level of self-alienation.

Horkheimer believes that the development of science and technology makes technological rationality dominate, and science and technology become a new ideology. In science and its crisis notes, horkheimer discusses how science and technology as a productive force became an ideology. He pointed out that in Marx's social theory, science and technology are regarded as one of human productivity. Science and technology have promoted modern industrial civilization and human spiritual civilization, greatly enriched social material wealth and improved people's quality of life. While accelerating the development of science and technology, its limitations are more and more prominent. The large-scale use of technology makes people become a part of the social machine, losing self-awareness and self-worth, transcendental thinking and critical thinking. But horkheimer is not against science and technology itself, but against the alienation of science and technology and its consequences. He regarded science and technology as an ideology, and the ruling class regarded science and technology as the tool of bourgeois rule, and regarded scientific and technological civilization as the root of all evils.

Horkheimer's ideological criticism includes not only philosophy, politics, morality, culture and art, but also science and technology. The criticism of enlightenment spirit and science and technology has been elaborated before, and the criticism of ideology by horkheimer is mainly expressed here. In hockheimer's view, ideology refers to the opposite of truth, and any human behavior that conceals the true nature of society is ideological. Ideology is false consciousness, lies and untrue. Hockheimer believes that all ideologies are invented and invented by their makers to consolidate and expand their own class interests, which control people's thoughts and determine social life. In horkheimer's view, the western bourgeois rulers manipulate people with ideology, deceive people, make people lose their critical ability, maintain the status quo of social development, and finally consolidate their bourgeois dominance.

Hockheimer believed that science and technology promoted the development of productive forces and social progress, but at the same time, the unlimited development of science and technology also strengthened the control over people, formed an ideology, and eventually became the tool of bourgeois rule. Marcuse's "one dimensional man", habermas's critical theory of technical rationality, and later ecological marxism were all deeply influenced by horkheimer's thought.

Horkheimer's film emphasizes the negative effects brought by science and technology, and puts the root of all contradictions in capitalist society on the development of alienation of science and technology. The limitation of horkheimer's thought is closely related to the cultural background and the historical background he was in at that time.

With the rapid development of science and technology, science and technology has become the first development factor of productive forces and created huge material wealth. However, the development of science and technology has also brought a series of negative problems, which reminds us that we must correctly examine the dual effects of the development of science and technology, respect the law of natural development, make rational use of science and technology, and adhere to the principle of moderate development.

The development of science and technology and commodity economy has promoted the process of economic globalization. International trade and international cooperation are frequent. Therefore, when we treat western culture, we should also adhere to a dialectical approach, resolutely resist vulgar culture and prevent the infiltration and expansion of decadent western culture. For the advanced connotation of western culture, we should actively learn and make it Chinese.

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