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英国Paper代写:Risk management for American multinationals

2019-10-21 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Risk management for American multinationals,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国跨国公司的风险管理。美国跨国公司为增强其抗风险能力,往往会采用纵向兼并和多角化经营的战略。他们认为最大的风险莫过于丧失市场机会。从新的风险管理战略出发,美国跨国公司广泛运用渗透型策略,占领世界市场。一方面,积极进行风险投资,以新产品开拓、占领新市场;另一方面,对国内已进入成熟期的产品,则有计划、有步骤地组织跨国生产和销售,将其推向国际市场,延长其产品的生命周期。

In order to adapt to the changes of the contemporary international economic and political environment, especially to adapt to the fierce international competition in the field of science and technology, the risk management strategy of contemporary multinational companies is undergoing significant changes. As a developed country with abundant natural resources and vast territory, the United States has a relatively long history of transnational operation and rich experience in risk management. The risk management of American multinational corporations has the following important characteristics.

American multinational companies attach great importance to the cultivation of high-tech industries and invest a large amount of money in the development of high-tech products. At the same time, in order to prevent and control the macro risks in the world market, American multinational companies, with special emphasis on technology monopoly, attach great importance to the protection of intellectual property rights, and are very cautious about technology export, generally tend to transfer to the U.S. wholly foreign-owned enterprises. The new risk prevention strategy emphasizes the transformation from passive risk prevention to active risk prevention, from regional risk prevention to global risk prevention, from traditional low-level risk prevention to high-tech based strategic risk prevention system. This strategic transformation of the United States has gone through a painful and profound process of reflection. Since the 1970s, American multinational companies have been challenged by Japan all over the world. Japan's challenge to force U.S. multinational companies to rethink their traditional risk management strategy mode, and prompted the authorities recognize that transnational corporations must fundamentally transform the multinational companies risk management strategy and train of thought, must accelerate to construct national innovation system as the characteristics, the high-tech industry as the pillar of the global strategic risk prevention system. Experts of American multinational corporations believe that the strength of risk prevention is fundamentally determined by the direction of future technological development in the world. "Contemporary" epoch-making technology, such as very large scale integrated circuit, especially the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuit, process automation technology, artificial intelligence technology, industrial process control and computer aided design of robot control system, new materials, energy transformation, biological technology, etc., however, the use of digital system is a new technology of contemporary multinational company faces at the heart of the revolution. In order to accelerate the implementation of the new global risk prevention strategy, the research fund of the us government mainly funds biotechnology and new materials. In development, funding for space exploration and space flight; Much of the funding for microelectronics development is included in research for many defence projects, as well as some civilian ones. Corporate America spends most of its money on six industries: motors and electronics, aircraft and rockets, chemistry and medicine, non-electric machinery, automobiles, and scientific and professional instruments.

In order to enhance the ability to resist risks, American multinational corporations often adopt the strategy of vertical merger and diversification. Take AT&T as an example. Since the mid-to-late 1980s, besides its main business of telecommunications, it has also engaged in financial, insurance, tourism, commercial, leasing, real estate, medical, transportation, publishing, consulting and other service industries, with its output value exceeding 50% of the total output value. American multinationals see no greater risk than the loss of market opportunities. Starting from the new risk management strategy, American multinational companies also widely use penetration strategy to occupy the world market. On the one hand, actively make venture investment to explore and occupy new markets with new products; On the other hand, for the domestic products that have entered the mature stage, we will organize the transnational production and sales step by step in a planned way, and push them to the international market, so as to extend the life cycle of the products.

Especially in the aspect of political risk, in the region with turbulent international political situation, many developing countries, such as some countries in Latin America, have implemented extreme nationalization policies and forcibly purchased or expropriated the assets of foreign companies in the process of economic development. The assets of 292 overseas subsidiaries of the United States alone were expropriated by local governments. In 1969, the government set up overseas private investment company, its main business is for the U.S. in overseas subsidiaries, insured for assets expropriated, nationalization, currency exchange, certain political risks, such as war, revolution or riots and difficulty for local currency exchange risk and influence the capital turnover and profit repatriation. In terms of tax and credit policies, the us tax law stipulates that foreign profits of transnational corporations are taxed only after repatriation, thus encouraging transnational corporations to reinvest their profits abroad. In order to reduce the tax burden on multinational corporations, the United States government has signed many regulations on avoidance of double taxation with many countries. In order to facilitate American companies to obtain invention patents abroad, the U.S. government has signed patent cooperation agreements with many countries. For more efforts to export credit to the multinational company, according to the import and export bank act, has increased its loans and funds, in addition to the medium and long term credit lending for overseas development projects, us companies need to manage the foreign currency loan, loan policy of the export-import bank of the United States also fully embodies the U.S. government to the interests of the multinational company. In addition, the U.S. government USES every measure, including diplomacy, to serve its multinational corporations. American embassies and consulates in foreign countries are responsible for assisting their transnational corporations to enter the host country, providing them with various business intelligence and protecting the interests of transnational corporations by diplomatic means. The interests act, passed in 1984, also provides for the United States to take appropriate action if it considers actions by foreign governments to be discriminatory against American companies. Since the end of the cold war, the us government has turned its attention to the support for transnational corporations, asking host countries to remove or relax the restrictions on investment in the us, etc.

American multinational companies have formed a huge and integrated international investment risk management network, and many of their subsidiaries and related companies are subordinate to the integrated strategic objectives of international investment risk management. In the integrated international investment network system, the major factor allocation is arranged by the head office, so as to select the appropriate production technology, production location and sales area from the global perspective, so as to maximize risk diversification and achieve the goal of global benefit maximization. The biggest feature of the risk management of American transnational corporations is not to consider the risk factors such as the market and resources in the country where a subsidiary is located, as well as the temporary gains and losses of a subsidiary, but to consider these factors in many countries or even in the global scope, so as to minimize risks and maximize profits. The risk management activities of transnational corporations are not simply a direct reflection of market advantages and disadvantages, but a planned action subordinate to the global risk management strategy. American multinational Banks play an important role in implementing the integrated international investment risk management network system. Modern American large multinational Banks with diversified institutions, not only engaged in insurance companies, commercial Banks, investment Banks, financial firms, consulting the company's business, and opened up the international trust, cash management, international leasing, and other new business, and thus become a multinational companies in the United States financial support to prevent risks, the assets of modern large multinational companies in the United States is quite large, its overseas assets, liabilities abroad, overseas profits of its total assets, total liabilities, more than half of the total profits. Large multinational Banks in the United States have been inseparable from overseas business, and the foreign direct investment of American multinational companies is more inseparable from the support of large multinational Banks, the two have become an integral part of the integrated international risk management network system.

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