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paper代写-Where to invade next

2019-10-19 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Where to invade next,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了《接着侵略哪儿》。《接着侵略哪儿》是由迈克尔·摩尔导演的纪录片,它为政治家和公民带来了许多有价值的思考。它揭示了意大利、法国、芬兰、斯洛文尼亚、德国、葡萄牙、挪威和冰岛等几个欧洲国家的社会价值、政府政策和一般就业关系。尽管迈克尔·摩尔用了一种滑稽的方式来表明他在欧洲的学习之旅是一场侵略,但这更像是一种军事隐喻,符合美国历史的世界刻板印象。

Introduction

Where to invade next”, a documentary is directed by Michael Moore, which brings a lot of worthwhile thoughts for both politicians as well as citizens. It reveals the social value, government policy and general employment relations of a number of European countries in terms of Italy, French, Finland, Slovenia, Germany, Portugal, Norway and Iceland. Although Michael Moore adopted a hilarious approach to indicate his learning journey through the Europe as a invasion, which is more likely a military metaphor to in line with the world stereotype of American history. The discovery of this “invasion” is that all the great implements from these countries are initially from the US. However, America lost its great culture and tends to slip down in many fields such as national productivities, educational level and civilizational wellbeing and safety.  Hence, this documentary review will focus on analyzing two countries: French and Norway that mentioned in this film. To explore the characteristics of employment relations of these countries based on a theoretical review from the literature.

Comparison

According to Edwards (2003), the key part of employment relations is the value of people, as the performance of employees can directly affect the economic developing of the state and the productivity of the employers. However, from the employees’ perspectives, the significant impact of employment relations is that a healthy and friendly employment relation can generate high level of commitments. Same as the discovery of Michael Moore’s documentary, the works will tend to be loyalty and accomplish their tasks effectively if their personal wellbeing has been guaranteed. In line with the literature, there are different approaches in terms of Unitary, Pluralist and Radical approaches to analyze the type of employment relations, which will be demonstrated as following.

Discussion of Norway

The prevalent employment relation style in most European counties has categorized as atypical employment (Moen, 2017). It refers to employers have overweighed power to cut wages, reduce job security and lower working conditions; whilst the unions’ power in political and bargaining level is extremely decreased. Norway is one of them. Back to last thirty years, the power of unions in Norway has reduced dramatically. This caused by a strong intervene of the state, including changing the national labour law and policies to reduce previous various range of protections to the workers. Those protections generate the laziness and relaxation of the workers but not the economy growth. The social policy has dominated by anti-unionism policy from both government level and employers side (Moen, 2017).  Unilateral regulation takes place, in which employers occupy the decision-making authority. The particular regulation within the employment relation is based on different perspectives. Pluralist perspective is a relatively contradictory of the unitary approach. It emphasizes important role of trade unions in balancing employment relations (Edwards, 2003). It strongly believes that various interests and conflicts can drive successful employment relations to occur. Furthermore, there is distinctive role of managers and unions to play. Unions represent employee’s voice to against unfair treatment from the management. It is reasonable to allow the association of unions and other actors, as they can be a facilitator and mediator to adjust the employment relations and reconcile different interests. This in turns will reach sustainable development of organizations. Although, it is the natural characteristic that capitalism tends to exploit labor to generate increasingly profits, without this type of class conflicts, the world would stagnate. Taking China as an example, during the Cultural Revolution period, one of the main national goals is to reduce and diminish the class conflict. Sadly, there is no actual economic development.

The development of Human resource management (HRM) provides an opportunity for managers to solve this issue. HRM emphasizes the importance of direct communication between employers and employees so that it has adopted by the managers to replace the representative mechanism of unions (Moen, 2017). Hence, Norway’s employment relation has changed significantly in order to improve the national capital can competitiveness. Its dominant perspectives of employment relation shifted from pluralist approach to radical approach. Besides, the form of employment relation changed from collectivism to individualism (Waddington, 2014). Interestingly, the circumstance in China is relatively opposite. China is historically adopted statutory regulation, which means Chinese government plays center role in employment relations, although the function of sate intervene is to provide a range of protection for workers. However, most recently, the government and employees increasingly concentrating the value of employee voice. Thus, voluntarism perspective of regulation is developed in China (Elfstrom and Kuruvilla, 2014). It represents a friendly environment between state and employers and supportive role rather than a determined role for state intervention

Discussion of France

The employment relation in France is rather complex. Same as Norway, French introduced individualism after the economic crisis in the 1992. Before this, French established a range of labour laws to enforce the level of collective bargaining. During this period, the state acts as a mediator between the employers and employees. Thus, the mode of regulation in France is voluntarism, which allows trade unions provides and endures labor’s range of benefits in terms of safety and health, wages protection and welfare provision. However, since the 1980s, French governments have adopted various strategies to promote the employment rate. For instance, the state established different types of jobs such as part time job and flexible contract jobs. Piore (1981) states that the dominant role of employment relation in France is centralization. The French government has main authority to several industries. As a result, the role of state is not only an influential actor but relatively as a determined role. For example, workers tend to represent their voice such as participating strikes when the there is a sense of confidence that labour power is strong. This situation is significantly similar with China’s employment relation system. Chinese strikes can be recognized as a state’s strategy to improve the unbalanced interests between employers and employees (Elfstrom and Kuruvilla, 2014).

Furthermore, it invented and encouraged diverse voices to occur in the workplace (Jenkins, 2000). With the development of the technology, there is a massive demand of workers to operate the machines. The labour law has written to protect workers away from unreasonable lay offs by employers. Hence, pluralist perspective is adopted broadly in French society. Various actors have influences to employment relations. Managers and workers begin to recognize and accept the significance of unions in representing and negotiating. Historically, French employment relation remains corporatism-oriented.

Reflection

It is noted in the literature that whole range of welfare for workers can earn their moral commitment (Sridhar and Nayak, 2013). Sadly, the drawback along with this generous is extremely severe. For instance, in Norway, satisfied wages and protected working conditions developed a high standard and expectation of working climate for citizens. The impacts of economic crisis across the Europe cannot reproduce productivity effectively. Hence, the state employed authorize corporatism to regulate the market by degrade the power of unions to force workers retain a hard work. In contrast, in China the government is continuously insist the determined role of the state (Elfstrom and Kuruvilla, 2014). Although, there might be conflicts and resentment results from this, the general employment relation is under control. It is crucial to ensure the national safety, as better working conditions and other welfare is coming afterwards.

Hence the one of the key learning for this course is that achieving successful employment relations needs an inter-understanding between employers and employees. The purpose of creating a worker-friendly employment climate is not aiming to diminish conflicts at workplace. Instead, maximize the positive impacts of conflicts to update and change business strategy constantly, as workplace conflict is unavoidable but can be controlled and reduced in a scientific manner (Kaufman, 2004). This in turn, employment relations will remain healthy and active. Furthermore, another important learning is that employers should consider particular interests of various stakeholders. The employment relation will change along with the context of the organization as well as the changes of economy and political background.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the essay has written based on Michael Moore’s documentary. The inspiration from this documentary provides thought-provoke thinking. The unknown knowledge behind the superficial phenomenon in terms of relaxation working and living values should be explored and evaluated. As the above discussion and comparison, it is true that unions should paly a significant role in the employment relations but more importantly, the state should create more scientific strategy to mediate the market activity in a long run. This practice can help the nation to avoid huge disasters economically and politically. Through the review of the employment relation in France and Norway, the similarity is that the two European countries shift their employment relation from individualism to collectivism. However, the employment relation-changing path in China shows an opposite side. This is due to the differentiation of the national system and social policy among these countries. Therefore, it is unlikely to build a universe employment relation principle, as its effectiveness strongly depends on the contextualization.

Reference

Eagan Daniel Feb 12, 2016. Film Review: Where to Invade Next. Film journal.

http://www.filmjournal.com/reviews/film-review-where-invade-next

Edwards, P. 2003. The employment relationship and the field of industrial relations. Blackwell.

Elfstrom, M and Kuruvilla, S. 2014. The changing nature of labor unrest in China. LRReview, 67(2), pp. 453-480.

Kaufman, B.E. (2004). The global evolution of industrial relations: Events, ideas and the IIRA. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

Jenkins, A. 2000. Employment Relations in France: Evolution and Innovation. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, pp. 350-352.

Moen, E. 2017. Weakening trade union power:new forms of employment relations. The case of Norwegian Air Shuttle. Retrieve online: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.

Piore, M. J. 1981. Convergence in Industrial Relaitons? The Case of France and the United States.

Sridhar, R and Nayak, A. 2013. Employment Relations. Management and Labour Studies, 38(4) pp. 411–423.

Waddington J (2014) Workplace representation, its impact on trade union members and its capacity to compete with management in the European workplace. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research 20(4): 537–558.

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