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Paper代写:Theory of comparative advantage

2019-10-10 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Theory of comparative advantage讨论了比较优势理论。比较优势是与绝对优势对应的概念。传统比较优势理论把比较优势看作是静态的、不变的,强调依据资源禀赋状况确立主导产业,而动态比较优势理论则认为比较优势是动态的、变动的,强调有选择地培育新的优势产业。实践中要立足现有的传统比较优势创造动态比较优势,以实现产业结构的升级和比较优势的转换。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Traditional comparative advantage theory regards comparative advantage as static and invariable, and emphasizes the establishment of leading industries according to the situation of resource endowment; while dynamic comparative advantage theory thinks comparative advantage is dynamic and changeable, and emphasizes the cultivation of new advantageous industries selectively. In practice, it is necessary to create dynamic comparative advantage based on the existing traditional comparative advantage so as to realize the upgrading of industrial structure and the transformation of comparative advantage.

Comparative advantage is the concept corresponding to absolute advantage. Absolute advantage is built on the comparison of the absolute cost of production. A country has an absolute advantage in the production of a commodity if it USES less or more efficient resources per unit of production. For example, Brazil can produce coffee and bananas at a lower cost, while the United States can produce airplanes and compact machine tools at a lower cost. Thus, Brazil has an absolute advantage in the production of coffee and bananas, while the United States has an absolute advantage in the production of airplanes and compact machine tools. As a result, countries use international trade to obtain products that are difficult for them to produce: Canada needs to import coffee, Japan needs to import oil, Kuwait needs to import aircraft and so on.

Comparative advantage is based on the opportunity cost of production activities. If the opportunity cost of producing a certain commodity is lower than that of other countries, the country has a comparative advantage in the production. On the other hand, if one country's opportunity cost of producing a certain commodity is higher than that of other countries, it lacks comparative advantage.

Comparative advantage explains the cause of international trade by the difference of labor productivity between countries. There are two versions of comparative advantage. Ricardo's version USES the difference in the time input to produce a product to reflect the difference in labor productivity; the modern economic version USES the size of opportunity cost to reflect the difference in productivity. Both versions point to the same conclusion: countries with high productivity in both products should specialise in the production of the one with higher Labour productivity, and countries should concentrate on the production of the one with a relatively small difference in productivity levels. When both countries exchange goods through trade, the welfare level of both countries will increase. Clearly, the theory of comparative advantage advocates free trade.

The proposal of the theory of comparative advantage is based on relatively strict premise. It is a qualitative breakthrough of the theory of absolute advantage and the development of the theory of absolute advantage. The initial premise of the theory of comparative advantage is as follows: two countries, two products or two elements; There are certain characteristics of national homes; the comparative interests of each country are static and unchanged, and there is no scale economy. Free trade is carried out under the market structure of perfect competition, in the form of barter exchange. There is no technological progress, capital accumulation or economic development.

As a theory of economic development, the theory of comparative advantage has been put forward by ricardo for nearly 200 years, but it is still the basic principle that enterprises and countries should follow in terms of relative intensity of factors when choosing production activities. "Two advantages over the worst, two disadvantages over the worst" is not only the basic principle guiding international trade, but also the principle of reasonable social division of labor in order to obtain the maximum social welfare and labor efficiency.

The free flow of production factors has changed the traditional pattern of division of labor. For example, in the early stage of China's reform and opening up, the export products were mainly labor-intensive products, especially textiles. Since the mid-1990s, mechanical and electrical products have become the largest export products in China. The theory of comparative advantage is difficult to explain international trade in services. The rules of trade in services are different from those of trade in goods in many ways: the rules of national treatment that need to be strictly observed in the field of trade in goods have been applied flexibly in the field of trade in services, and the openness of service sectors has to be implemented according to their respective schedules. The regulation different from the product trade just reflects the difficulty of applying the theory of comparative advantage in the field of service trade. The development of knowledge economy reduces the dependence on resource endowment. Fourth, falling prices of labor-intensive exports may lead to welfare deterioration. Finally, the labor-intensive industrial structure established according to comparative advantage cannot satisfy the connotation of economic power. High-tech manufacturing industries built on cheap Labour are in fact highly vulnerable.

Currently, the widely accepted theory of dynamic comparative advantage holds that a country's dynamic comparative advantage based on its future development strategy needs to be cultivated by the government through industrial policies, or the government's industrial policies can accelerate the process. The "flying geese model" theory that explains the international division of labor in east Asia and the development and change of industrial structure is typical.

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the dynamic comparative advantage theory is the development and continuation of the traditional comparative advantage theory in the modern trade pattern. Traditional theory of comparative advantage is the idea of a "passive adaptation", stressed that one country should use the structure of factor endowments and other natural formation of the comparative advantage to choose leading industry, and the dynamic comparative advantage theory is the idea of a "positive change" and stressed that one country from comparative advantage to create comparative advantage, through the study of industrial upgrading, accumulation and other economic activities to foster their new comparative advantage, in more advanced industries to form industry international competitiveness.

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