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paper代写-Brexit and regionalism

2019-06-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Brexit and regionalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国脱欧和区域主义。英国最终以全民公投的方式决定脱离欧盟。尽管脱欧很快震动了世界,其各方面的深刻影响也会在今后很长时间里逐渐释放出来,但这仅是区域和世界秩序变革的最前奏。必须思考的是区域秩序甚至是世界秩序的未来,对北美、亚太、亚洲等地域不同形式的区域主义产生重大的影响。

Brexit,regionalism,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

Britain voted to leave the European Union in a referendum. Although brexit has shaken the world quickly and its profound effects will be gradually released for a long time to come, it is only the first prelude to the transformation of the regional and world order.

What must be considered is the future of regional order and even world order, which will have a great impact on the regionalism of different forms in North America, Asia Pacific and Asia.

The modern sovereign states emerged from Europe are the products of the disintegration of traditional empires. The emergence of sovereign states has introduced radical changes to both internal development and international relations. It is the sovereign state that shapes today's splendid modern civilization and culture, but the emergence and development of sovereign state also leads to war, extending from Europe to the whole world. The most important reason behind the formation of the eu is to avoid war through internal integration.

Why did Britain leave the eu? Dissatisfaction with the eu is widespread, and not just in Britain. What is happening inside the eu that makes people unhappy?

The first is the formation of the eu bureaucracy. It was supposed to co-ordinate the affairs of eu countries in order to enhance cooperation and pursue common interests. Yet eu bureaucracies tend to pursue their own interests over those of sovereign internal states. Second, the eu's mandate continues to expand, with institutional integration, increased economic welfare, human rights and other justifications of any discourse to expand its power. As a result, its members become limited sovereign states. Third, the internal integration led by elites and capital leads to the internal "flattening" and intensifies the conflicts among member states. In the eu, the development degree varies greatly among different countries, and those low level countries begin to "policy rent-seeking", which means seeking benefits through eu membership and getting benefits without pains, increasing the burden of developed countries within the eu.

After the end of the cold war, eu politicians and academics proudly declared that the eu's development represented the dawn of a "post-sovereign state" era. However, "post-sovereign states" do not really rely on internal integration, but rather justify their existence by looking for external "enemies". Increasingly, the eu has evolved into a geopolitical bloc or "new empire" that CARES more about geopolitical interests than anything else. After the end of the cold war, the eu rapidly expanded eastward, bringing in eastern European countries to put enormous strategic pressure on Europe's "common enemy", Russia.

As a regional organization, the eu has brought great benefits to its member states, not only preventing wars, but also increasing economic interests, free movement of population and free allocation of labor force in the region. However, the benefits gained are highly unequal and polarised within a country. London, for example, is the most profitable city. The elites who gain the most are extremely selfish. They are the makers and promoters of national policies, but the decisions are often made out of the specific interests of the common people, or even at the expense of the people's interests.

The referendum results made it clear that London was heavily in favour of remaining in the eu, while ordinary people who had not benefited opted out. However, the "self-interest" of the elites is also restricted by the eu as a community, because some sovereignty has been "transferred" to the eu, and British politicians have lost their autonomy in Britain's internal and external affairs.

The British believe in Adam Smith. Smith's "invisible hand" believed that the selfish individual could maximize the public interest when giving full play to his autonomy. From this point of view, the choice to leave the eu and regain autonomy can be said to be a rational choice of the British.

Britain's departure from the eu may be a harbinger of the bloc's demise. Europe has seen many imperial collapses. The Roman empire, the austro-hungarian empire, the Ottoman empire and so on all brought changes to Europe. Once the eu has evolved into a new type of empire, it is only a matter of time before it disintegrates. The eu may impose institutional barriers to entry and exit in its own interests. But if these problems are not addressed, they will only lead to a crisis.

Dissatisfaction with the eu already extends to new eu countries. After democratisation, these countries soon found that the old ones were more interested in geopolitical interests than in the functioning of their democracies or the health of their domestic economies. Poland and Ukraine are good examples.

Olson and others, the late American economist, have demonstrated with overwhelming economic evidence that big countries must bear more of the costs in multilateral organizations. Great powers either have the ability and strength to unilaterally provide public interests to their member states, or they have the ability and strength to "tax" their Allies and provide public interests to their member states.

It is easy to understand the us's motivation to form coalition-like "geopolitical blocs" to maintain its hegemony. But why should other members accept American dominance?

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