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paper代写-Physical education reform in British schools

2019-06-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Physical education reform in British schools,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国学校的体育课程改革。英国国家和社会相结合的教育体制,对体育课程产生了巨大影响。体育教学改革和整个教育改革同步进行,它接受世界文化的影响,又形成了相对的独立性。英国体育课程改革的进程中,分散或对立的内容进行协调和统一。在课程的标准、理论和内容等各方面均努力实现内部平衡,使之发挥综合性的效应。

Physical education,英国学校体育课程改革,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

British education has a long and unique history. Its curriculum and educational organization are highly flexible. In the course field, "what knowledge is most valuable" by h.pencer, a British educator, is one of the most famous papers in the course field. In a sense, it was the first to systematically explain the course issues, which can be referred to as the author's work about the course theory. After him, there are the representative of process philosophy, a.n.waite -head, the expert of process model, l.stenhouse, the sociology scholar b.ernstein, the expert of analytic education philosophy, p.h. st and so on. These famous British philosophers and educators have played a very important role in the curriculum reform of Britain and even the world. Under the influence of the whole curriculum reform in Britain, the school physical education curriculum in Britain has undergone many reforms.

As the first country to develop capitalism, Britain has become a world power for a time. British citizens have strong national self-esteem and they seek their own independent development path, which is the same in sports. At the end of the 19th century, when European and American countries advocated Swedish gymnastics, Britain still took games and sports as the main project. From the 1950s to the 1960s, the educational outlook of countries in the world represented by the United States shifted from child-centered theory to subject-centered theory. In Britain, however, the child-centered view of education has great social impact. In the 1970s, the word "sport" was widely used in Britain, and based on this theory, a new physical education curriculum content system was established, forming the independent development path of physical education curriculum in Britain. In the 1980s, many countries in the world criticized the unified physical education curriculum and advocated personalized education, while Britain criticized the lack of standard physical education curriculum and formulated the national standard of physical education curriculum in 1988.

For a long time in British life, games and sports have been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people and enjoyed a broad mass base. In the early 19th century, when gymnastics was popular in some countries of continental Europe, the British were still immersed in a variety of outdoor games and sports, and the content of school sports was mainly based on these events. In terms of system, Britain is an administrative mode combining national government and social groups. The government agency leading school sports is the ministry of education. However, there is a direct link between extracurricular sports work in schools and various sports clubs in society. Therefore, sports committees as government agencies and social sports groups have a great influence on school sports.

During the World War II, Britain began to draw up a master plan to rebuild national education. In 1944, the education bill introduced by the education minister butler in the parliament was passed. Its main content was to set up the national education leading institution -- the ministry of education to strengthen the unified leadership of the central government on school education. Education is divided into three successive stages: primary, secondary, higher and continuing education. Compulsory education is extended to 10 years. Free education in public schools; Non-government schools into the national system; We will adjust the administrative structure of local education, delegate educational functions to lower-level governments, and clarify local educational responsibilities. The above contents reflect the characteristics of British education and the foundation of the education system. The promulgation of the education law also has an impact on the organization and leadership system of school sports. After world war ii, the physical education department of the ministry of education was separated from the administration of the medical bureau of the former ministry of education and became an independent administrative department. This not only reflects the importance of school sports work, but also indicates that the goal of school sports has undergone a fundamental change.

In 1944, there were many types of schools in British education, which had to be matched by different physical education courses. Therefore, each school in the revision of physical education syllabus, determine the content of physical education, has a great autonomy. In order to strengthen macro-leadership, the ministry of education has submitted a reference book to change physical education from physical training to physical education, a change in the concept that has also had a positive impact on the physical education curriculum. Emphasizes the physical body development function in the past, and now is in function under the premise of must be in physical development, further emphasized the overall social and psychological field of sports education function, emphasized the sports as part of the education, the requirements to sports physical, psychological and social function of comprehensive education, the school sports as an integral part of school education as a whole. With the enactment of the education act and the transformation of the school education system and the goal of school physical education, the reform of school physical education curriculum is imperative.

British physical education theorists have reviewed the content of the physical education curriculum in the 1970s, suggesting that more games and competitive events were added during this period. In 1972, the ministry of educational science revised and published the instruction book of physical education. The book USES the term Movement extensively.

In 1988, the Education Reform Act was enacted and passed by Margaret thatcher's conservative government. The main goal of the education reform plan is to break the years of decentralized educational administrative system and strengthen the state's control over grassroots schools through assessment. Physical education as one of the compulsory basic courses, the national curriculum standards, the school physical education has a certain restriction. The act sets out the objectives of the implementation of the national curriculum: "to promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, intellectual and physical development of students; Prepare students for their future work and life." The basic principle of the national curriculum is to provide children with a stable and extensive basic curriculum according to their age, ability, intelligence and special educational needs. The aim is to ensure the right of primary and secondary school students to learn and develop themselves. Ensuring consistency and consistency; Promoting public understanding; Develop the school curriculum. The national physical education curriculum standards select six areas of sports, namely athletics, dance, games, gymnastics, outdoor activities and swimming. These programs were implemented at different ages according to different requirements. Among them, 5-7 years old is the first stage, 8-11 years old is the second stage, 12-14 years old is the third stage, 15-16 years old is the fourth stage. As the national curriculum standard, the first stage of physical education is to master basic sports skills as the theme, the second and third stages of gymnastics and a variety of sports events, field activities as the theme, the fourth stage can freely choose a sports project as the textbook, forming a four-stage incremental teaching model.

The reform of the curriculum in 1988 was a milestone for the UK and a crucial step for the physical education curriculum. But, in the aspect of physical education curriculum reform, but there have been some deviation, in 1991, the house of Commons of the culture and education committee investigating the after school sports and the development trend of the extracurricular sports, on June 4, puts forward the report of the sports in school, and published by the national association of secondary school principals and central sports council of the nation's 1275 public schools, along with survey results from 307 private schools: the national physical education hours have decreasing trend, 71% of under 14 years old students only in two hours per week of physical education; Three percent of schools have cut back on physical education because of national curriculum standards. Only 52 per cent of 16-year-olds took electives; Fewer swimming classes; Lack of active sports activities in spare time and holidays; Fifty-one percent of public schools complained about drainage and sports facilities in playgrounds; Thirty percent of public schools have difficulty recruiting qualified PE teachers. As for physical education classes, the number of 14-year-olds attending classes for less than 2 hours per week in public schools increased from 38% in 1978 to 71%, and the average number of hours decreased from 2 hours and 8 minutes to 1 hour and 39 minutes. If the unified curriculum is implemented nationwide and the basic education of cultural courses is further strengthened, the decline of physical education classes will be further accelerated.

As for extracurricular activities, due to the emphasis on the national standards of the cultural curriculum, the number of activities has been reduced in terms of time, venue and equipment. Suggestions according to the above situation, the house of Commons education committee, about the course content design emphasizes all children can enjoy sports, and from the viewpoint of lifetime sports, promote the diversification of content, and the individual project, as the key for the class to reduce trend, the house of Commons emphasize 5-16 students open at least two hours per week of physical education. When it comes to sports facilities, the house of Commons urges school authorities not to look after immediate interests. The house of Commons called for a bill to be submitted to parliament in a timely manner to set up departmental legal measures to promote the common use of school and social sports facilities. To promote the formation of students' character and the cultivation of collective cooperation and coordination; Cultivate students' love; Form the basis of lifelong sports; Promote the development of competitive sports in Britain by improving the technical level of sports in schools.

In 1999, the ministry of education, the ministry of employment and the curriculum review bureau jointly issued the curriculum standards for primary and secondary schools. The PE standard states that schools must ensure two hours of physical activity a week, both within and outside the national PE curriculum, and this should be implemented at all key stages. Britain's national physical education curriculum, as part of the national curriculum, has also undergone major changes.

The lack of clear goals and values in the national curriculum before 2000 has been criticized. The current "national curriculum 2000" is the curriculum standard promulgated and implemented in 2000 after two revisions and improvements in 1994 and 1999. In the current national curriculum, in addition to the whole national curriculum has a clear statement of value orientation, each course also has its own clear goal and specific purpose. The national curriculum values human self, human relations, social responsibility and environmental protection. The national physical education curriculum aims to cultivate students' positive and healthy life attitude. Enable students to discover their talents and preferences and decide how to engage in lifelong physical activity as the goal of the physical education curriculum. To promote students' spiritual, moral, social and cultural progress; The objective of the course is to promote key skills and students' future development through physical education. The national curriculum lays out the general direction for the development of basic education in Britain. Under the guidance of the general value orientation, physical education curriculum plays an indispensable role in the development of education and social progress with the unique value of sports.

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