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Paper代写:The image of female intellectuals in Britain

2019-06-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- The image of female intellectuals in Britain讨论了英国的女性知识分子形象。19-20世纪英国的女性知识分子对英国的文学发展,尤其是女性文学的成熟起到了决定性的作用。从十九世纪到二十世纪,英国的女性知识分子从社会的不同领域不同角度逐渐的构建起了属于自己的独特文化,用自己的视角记录了维多利亚时期以来女性追求平等,逐步实现自我的漫长过程。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Female intellectuals in 19th and 20th centuries played a decisive role in the development of English literature, especially the maturity of female literature. This paper starts from the historical existence of female intellectuals and describes the reasons for the gradual growth and maturity of female intellectuals in this stage. Author, respectively, compared the similarities and differences between men and women in the 19th century writers intellectual women image, expounds the transformation of female intellectual images in the 20th century the reason and process, through the analysis of 19-20 th-century British women intellectuals and works in real life, out of the female intellectuals' shaping process of a relatively complete.

As the representative word of negative and negative, intellectuals gradually show their real characteristics to the world with the development of The Times. They are no longer regarded as the bookworm in the ivory tower, free from the special group outside the reality, or the cynical youth disturbing the social status quo. In his book molecular theory of knowledge, said defined intellectuals as follows: "an intellectual is an individual who represents art, whether it is speaking, writing, teaching or appearing on TV." Such a group with their own uniqueness, critical and defend the sense of justice of human nature slowly pushed forward the development of The Times.

In the development of history, women were excluded from the intellectual group for various reasons. Just as women in Britain were always outside the mainstream of literature until the 19th century. Gradually, there is such a group of women, who yearn for economic and spiritual freedom and independence, and want to fight against fate more effectively and explore the spiritual value of survival.

Gradually more and more women have the characteristics of intellectuals, however, as women such a special identity and gives they deviated from the patriarchal world of subject consciousness, long suppressed free consciousness along with the development of The Times, the move to become women, especially intellectual women pursuit of women's rights and the personality independence of intrinsic motivation.

The rapid development of industry and the increasing maturity of women's freedom consciousness directly led to the first large-scale feminist movement in British history in 1856. In this way, women directly expressed their call for equality. By the turn of the 20th century, the waning of the British empire, as represented by London, had become an ironclad fact, even before the sun had set. Thanks to the spread of printing, women's groups grew and women had a bigger and fairer platform where they could freely exchange ideas and discuss writing. In this period, literary forms were also greatly diversified, which made the peak period of British female literature, especially female novels, in the 19th century.

The middle of the 20th century, the British education got a series of reforms, the Labour party to implement the education law, the compulsory education of the life of up to 15 years old, women enjoy the equal education opportunities, they can study in school, can be qualified to be in business or engineering school, can even be employed by bank the government departments. Through a long struggle, intellectual women have gained more and more rights for themselves, such as voting rights and property rights. They have completely come out of family life and become active in all fields of society.

Especially in the 1960s and 1970s of the 20th century, the prevalence of consumerism and hedonism, the prosperity of mass culture such as hippies and rock music directly led to the decadence and emptiness of people's thoughts. Female intellectuals in this period experienced a series of social turbulence, and the transformation of values and aesthetic experience was directly reflected in their works. Female intellectuals, represented by Doris lessing and Alice murdoch, focus more on the ideological and textual structure of the characters, showing a trend of diversification in their works. Values in the post-industrial context were transformed after Margaret thatcher came to power, as was the aesthetic transformation of female intellectuals.

Influenced by the mainstream ideology of patriarchal culture, female images written by male writers before the 19th century basically fall into two categories: angels who cater to male aesthetic standards and devils who are contrary to male evaluation system. In their works, men are wanton in sympathy with the sufferings of women and depict a series of female images with the thoughts of male power and patriarchy.

Such as dickens's DORA, Helen, Agnes, and so on, while these lifelike characters let us see dickens as a humanitarian writer sympathizers or women, he by the article present a view of women always can't get away from the influence of sexism, not do more in-depth mining of female experience.

Compared with dickens, thackeray's female characters are more vivid and rich. Gentle, chaste and loyal angel, the influence of patriarchal society on thackeray's works is obvious. The contrast between Emily in vanity fair, lady cass island and beatrice in Henry esmond, Helen lulla and Blanche in pendennis, and so on, shows the author's male pride everywhere.

Although female literary creation was still in its infancy in the 19th century, female intellectuals were bound by the moral standards and traditional concepts under the patriarchal rule, and their own literature could not draw on new blood. Besides, women had few social careers to choose from except writing. Under such circumstances, the female characters in the works of women writers in the 19th century still show a great sense of existence. This time, most of women writers to keep their focus on love, marriage and relationship, such as charlotte Bronte's Jane eyre and Emily Bronte's wuthering heights, George Eliot's "the mill on the floss", Mrs Gaskell's wife and daughter, Mary brayton Mrs Audrey's secret. These works, without exception, express their hearts through love from the perspective of women, describe the troubles of women, fight against the unfair treatment of women, and discuss how women achieve happiness through marriage. In this period of slow development of female literature, female intellectuals "abandoned imitation, increased their awareness of independence, and consciously fought against inequality in their works. Marriage and love, feminism, tradition and conflict are the main three aspects. In particular, the publication of lady audley's secret in the 1960s greatly shook the traditional British "manor" culture and greatly impacted the social order under the patriarchal rule.

However, the social environment in the 19th century revealed a reality quite different from that of women in novels. The embodiment of the female consciousness in the novel in real life also does not have too much objective basis, to sum up, overall, in the 19th century men and women writer's main female image gap is obvious, most of them are from the writer's own social status of evaluation system, for the description of the female is not true and natural. Someone once commented on this literary phenomenon: due to lack of sense of identity, women unconsciously tend to be the same, focus their eyes on themselves, objectify themselves and turn themselves into the target of men's attention. So basically, for most of the 19th century, the state of existence that women depicted in their works was nothing more than an ideal utopia for male approval. In fact, the expression of this literary image, which carries too many good wishes, is an attempt process of intellectual women from "self-concern" to "concern of others".

Until the 20th century, English literature is only revealed a large number of real portrayal of the intellectual women, and become to be reckoned with in the literary history of a beautiful scenery, along with the increase in education opportunity, women are increasingly involved in the social activities, the establishment of the natural historical tradition and social reality, such a true expression to promote the understanding between the male and female, the academic study of female images, women writers began to explore depressive side by patriarchal society. Great changes have taken place in the relationship between women, especially female intellectuals, and established family ethics, marriage and love, professional attributes and social rational models.

Scholars seem to have been accustomed to regard the second world war as the time boundary of this period. The values, inner experiences or ideal states expressed by intellectual women before and after the war have provided us with new research perspectives. "Everything changed around 1910." more works of the characters choose to reflect on the same time. With the resurgence of western feminist movements after the war, the main appeal of intellectual women gradually evolved from the desire for political and economic equality in the early 20th century to the equal pursuit of values, moral values, family values and other spiritual aspects. Among them, Virginia Woolf expressed clearly that the description of intellectual women has entered a new realm through her "a room of her own". In the 20th century, the creation of female literature was more comprehensive and diversified, and the combination with reality and more detailed themes gave us a deeper understanding of the complete process of female consciousness. The focus of writers' works has been further transformed from the focus of marriage, love and gender relations based on the female perspective in the 19th century to the common topics of all mankind, such as interpersonal relations, politics, women's fate, racism, marginalized groups, psychology and so on. By the second half of the 20th century, intellectual women had basically possessed the basic characteristics of female aesthetics: the contact with the society and the ability of free and independent thought, and the diverse contact with the society gradually promoted the development of intellectual women's independence. The author chooses two representative writers in this period as examples to further prove the characteristics of intellectual women in the literary works of the 20th century.

As one of the most influential female writers in the history of English literature, the female characters created by Margaret drabble can be regarded as the representatives of the new generation of women. They seek a new life and strive to be whole. Summer birdcage, golden Jerusalem and the polish are the three most representative works of drabul in his early period, which explore how the female intellectuals in drabul's works break through the tradition and realize the process of self-redemption. Summer bird cage is Boolean Della's first novel, starting from the novel, she will show us the image of a "new woman", the protagonist Sara can be considered to be the new representative of the female, she has a very rich sense of self, independent of wisdom, culture, has the determination, has a unique opinion on social issues. She is unwilling to play the role assigned to women by the society, and she is eager to have a marriage of true love. In the process of pursuing self-realization, she has experienced difficulties again and again, encountered various contradictions and conflicts, and finally maintained her independent personality charm and obtained her own day. Like Sarah Louise pedigree, has the same knowledge, there is energy, and have a taste, even Sarah reference objects in many ways, in order to material target married dull boring, Stephen, but such marriages firmly stuck to her like a cage, in order to escape, to regain spiritual freedom and brave to break the cage of marriage, she got rid of the bondage of traditional marriage. Young intellectual women like salah Lois have experienced the most intense inner conflicts in the process of self-seeking. With a clear pursuit of life, they continue to move forward on the road to self-realization.

A. s. byatt, winner of the 1990 man booker prize and one of the most famous contemporary female writers in Britain, shows the confusion of female intellectuals' self-positioning to readers through her four-step series of growing up. Based on the British background of the 1950s and 1960s, the quartet are garden virgins, still life, tower of Babel and whistling woman. Four novels to female intellectuals frederica sister described the fifties and sixties of the 20th century as the main line of the background, the female identity and the establishment of female image process, starting from their teenage life, the novel describes their study process, marital status, professional experience, full of knowledge showed a new generation of women's lives, they arm themselves with knowledge and traditional patriarchal do struggle, strive to build a unique tradition of female identity. The two heroines in the novel, because of family education, have been greatly liberated intellectually, and their study experience in Cambridge proves that they are no less than men, even better than many men. Such living and learning background made them feel embarrassed in the 1950s Britain. They did not get the respect and equality they deserved, yet they could not integrate into the traditional female group smoothly. At the beginning, both sisters chose marriage. Stefani married a priest and gradually became trapped in the daily family business. Little sister fredrika gradually found that family life had completely occupied all her energy, she had no way to think about anything else, she wanted to escape, want to maintain the inner heart can think independently of a pure private space. Even though they can escape, divorce and give up their identity as wives in married life, they are unable to give up their rights as mothers, their desire for the opposite sex and the maternal instinct of women, all of which make these intellectual women feel confused and contradictory in their self-positioning.

In this period, the image of women has successfully broken away from the single appeal of women to politics and economy, and got rid of the resistance mode of women to the limited role in society. Intellectual women began to question the tradition, thinking about how to coordinate the contradiction between women's spiritual world and the real world, and began to reflect on how to better achieve the balance between women's marriage and career.

From the 19th century to the 20th century, British female intellectuals gradually constructed their own unique culture from different fields and perspectives of the society, and recorded the long process of women pursuing equality and gradually realizing themselves from their own perspective since the Victorian era.



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