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paper代写-India and Pakistan over Kashmir

2019-05-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- India and Pakistan over Kashmir,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了印巴克什米尔之争。印巴克什米尔之争有其复杂的原因,从英国的既定政策、英军指挥官的所作所为、英国政府面对冲突的反应和英国的国家利益来看,印巴克什米尔之争是英国阴谋论的说法是错误的。印巴发生克什米尔之争,其中有英国政府不负责任的地方,但是要说克什米尔之争是英国阴谋的话,缺乏事实依据。虽然有些英国人参加了印度教徒与穆斯林之间的仇杀,但那只是一小部分人,并不能代表英国政府的态度,所以说印巴克什米尔之争并不是英国的阴谋。

India and Pakistan over Kashmir,印巴克什米尔之争,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

Seeing the upsurge of the Indian independence movement, the British government realized that it was impossible for India to be a colony again, so it actively planned the future of India and tried to keep India intact and did not want to break up.

After the World War II, as the polarization between the congress party and the Muslim league grew, the British tried to persuade them to agree on some mutually acceptable framework. For example, "the government will guarantee the integrity of India based on the recommendations of the cabinet". "In 1946, the British government published the 'cabinet mission plan' to solve the problem of India, making it clear that it was not in favor of partition. Instead, it proposed to establish a federation and give real power to several provincial groups divided by regions.

Even when Britain realized it could no longer rule India, Lord mountbatten, a member of the royal family, was appointed governor of India in an effort to keep the country intact. "Despite his efforts to get Indian leaders to find some common ground, mountbatten found himself in a political bind and ultimately decided to divide the British colonies into two independent states." It can be found that Britain always wants to keep India intact and does not want to divide India into two independent countries.

Chen Yanqi in its the India-Pakistan partition - the Kashmir conflict when there is a quote the Luo Meixi · chang DE la "asylum" on page 14: British considering the Kashmir as close to the Soviet union and China frontier strategic base of special function, want to have it as a military base, avoidance of Kashmir, provocative India-Pakistan disputes. It is true that Kashmir is strategically important, but it would be unfair for the author to assume that Britain provoked the India-Pakistan dispute by simply regarding Kashmir as a military base as stated in romesh chandra's right to asylum. First of all, the book asylum was published in 1946. In other words, the idea of Kashmir as a military base should have been earlier than 1946. However, in the cabinet mission plan to solve the Indian problem published by the British government in 1946, it was clearly not in favor of partition. Obviously in 1946, the situation in India is still in the hands of the British, the British did not anticipate will surprise they anticipate forms of development, they are more not prophecy will consider that this area will cause conflict between India and Pakistan, Kashmir border of India and Pakistan are defined at the time, and how can know the Kashmir squarely in the boundary between the two countries. And even if there were plans for a military base in Kashmir, at a time when the entire south Asian subcontinent was still in British hands, it would not be surprising to see a British military base in Kashmir.

Therefore, if the idea of setting up a military base in Kashmir is regarded as the reason for Britain to provoke the India-Pakistan Kashmir dispute, it is not consistent with the British plan at that time.

India and Pakistan, newly independent countries, do not have their own complete military systems and have to rely on British generals for military command. The then governor general of India was mountbatten, who also served as chairman of India's defense commission. The British supreme commander in charge of the defense of India and Pakistan is the former commander in chief of the Indian colonial army. The commander in chief of the navy, army and air force of India and Pakistan are both British. British generals have a pivotal position in the military command system of the two countries, affecting the development of the situation.

The British generals did much to avoid an escalation of the war. Britain's top commander of the violin lake to serve in the army in India and Pakistan to the British commanders at all levels of the order by issuing the following: Stand Down once received the code, after all British officers and other military personnel regardless of any position, regardless of their rank high and low, also will ever stop participating in the command or management of the armed forces of India and Pakistan.

In Pakistan, Pakistan jinnah governor after Indian troops to Kashmir, asked to send the regular troops to fighting in Kashmir, the army chief, gray after asking Mr Qin lake, rejected jinnah requirements, such as jinnah said must send, he was only resigned as army chief position, also will resign in other British officer in the army. Since the Pakistani army was mainly under the command of British officers, jinnah had to agree not to send regular Pakistani troops. On the Indian side, since the maharaja of Kashmir agreed to merge with India, mountbatten and the British general agreed to airlift Indian troops to fight in Kashmir, but still kept the Indian army's action of expanding the war in various ways. Mountbatten opposed India's expansion of the war into Pakistan and proposed to submit the Kashmir issue to the United Nations.

Efforts by mountbatten, ochenlake and British generals serving in the Indian and Pakistani armed forces to stop the spread of armed conflict between India and Pakistan have had some success. Can be found from the attitude of the British general, the British is don't want war between India and Pakistan, they use their authority to avoid war, to prevent the expansion of the war, if, as some people think that British hope to gain in India-Pakistan war, the British general won't prevent war scale measures, because the bigger the scale of the war, the role of the British commander is a rising tide lifts all boats, then Britain's attitude is more important. From the British commander's "do-nothing" attitude, we can see that the Kashmir dispute is a British conspiracy view is wrong.

After the partition of India and Pakistan, Britain, as the former imperial power, tried to maintain its power and status in India and Pakistan from the perspective of global strategy. It did not want war between the two countries to bring adverse effects to Britain. After their independence, India and Pakistan became members of the commonwealth. In terms of maintaining the unity of the commonwealth, Britain also opposed India and Pakistan to go to war. Therefore, Britain adopted the policy of "putting out the fire" in the first India-Pakistan war to avoid the occurrence and expansion of the war as far as possible.

Delineate borders when "on the basis of the British government in neutral India division", in order to make government feels fair, Pakistan and India decided to make a have never been to India, for India and Pakistan didn't have any feelings for demarcation, Radcliffe was chosen, because he never to the east of the Suez Canal, and he and the relationship between Nehru and jinnah are good, the British government thinks to preside over the boundary defined by him is the most suitable candidate. Although his demarcation plan has caused a serious "sequelae" in the relationship between the two countries, it is because of the time pressure and his lack of understanding of India's complex national conditions that he has no obvious preference in demarcating the border. "Britain in order to avoid the Kashmir as a seal after the partition of outstanding issues, trying to persuade harry singh in decision-making on August 15, 1947, according to the will of the people or merge India in Kashmir, or merge in Pakistan, in order to become a part of India or Pakistan territory in Kashmir and protected, otherwise possible unrest; It also says independence for Kashmir is out of the question. To that end, mountbatten traveled personally to Kashmir in late June 1947 to meet with hari singh, but without success."

"Leaders in Delhi and Pakistan have been warned of rising violence," Nehru said in a telegram to British prime minister attlee on December 28, 1947. But India would like first to ask the United Nations security council to reaffirm its request to Pakistan without prejudice to India's freedom to take military action to exercise its right to self-defence if necessary. In a swift response, attlee said he agreed that the UN security council should take immediate action and hoped that India would refrain from waging war, noting that an Indian attack on Pakistan would certainly make India the wrong party in the eyes of the world and influence India's debate at the UN. Under pressure from Britain, India had to abandon plans for an immediate major offensive against Pakistan.

What the British government has done shows that it is not taking sides in drawing borders. If, as some believe, the British government is deliberately trying to avoid Kashmir and provoke a row, there will be some favoritism in drawing borders. However, the British government put pressure on the kashmiri maharaja to make a decision to avoid a war between India and Pakistan. After the war, the British government persuaded both sides to exercise restraint to avoid the expansion of the war. So the British government's approach suggests that the "British conspiracy theory" is wrong.

India as a British colony, is extremely important in Britain, the British government is trying to perfect the end of the partition, "after all, leaving a mess of division for Britain ruled India nearly two hundred years, is not a glorious thing, and the partition of India to intervene in other countries, to attempt to keep himself in the subcontinent of economic interests and political impact of the British, is more harm than good." Therefore, for the sake of Britain's national interests, the British government also hopes that India and Pakistan can coexist peacefully.

After World War II, Britain was no longer the empire where the sun never set. Britain's strength was greatly weakened and it was unable to maintain a large colony. Therefore, it was forced to allow some colonies to become independent. But don't want to other elements of Britain, as the original suzerain its sphere of influence, so do not want a war between India and Pakistan for Kashmir, in the event of war, the Soviet union or the United States forces will be involved in this region, it will weaken the influence of the British in the region, Britain's national interest, so the British efforts to mediate between India and Pakistan to avoid the outbreak of the war. Moreover, at this time, the southeast Asian people's movement for independence kept coming and going, and the malayan people armed against the British colonial rule. At this time, the UK was at its last resort, with no strength or willingness to intervene in the indo-Pakistan dispute, let alone establish a military base in Kashmir. Therefore, it is not in Britain's national interest to provoke India and Pakistan to fight for Kashmir. The British are also afraid of being dragged into the quagmire of the India-Pakistan war.

So the British also didn't have the energy involved in India-Pakistan disputes, inadequate if war between India and Pakistan, the United States and the Soviet union's power involvement-which would rather go against Britain's national interest, India-Pakistan war also can destroy the relationship between the commonwealth countries, so the British to its national interests could not hope war between India and Pakistan.

To sum up, there are complex reasons for the India-Pakistan Kashmir dispute. From the perspective of established British policies, the actions of British commanders, the British government's response to the conflict and the British national interests, it is wrong to say that the India-Pakistan Kashmir dispute is a British conspiracy theory. There is something irresponsible about the British government in the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan, but there is no evidence to suggest that the Kashmir dispute is a British plot. Although some britons have taken part in hindu-muslim vendettas, they are a small minority and do not represent the attitude of the British government. So the India-Pakistan Kashmir dispute is not a British plot.

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