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paper代写-Vocational education in Britain

2019-05-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Vocational education in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的职业教育。18世纪60年代,以蒸汽机的发明和应用为主要标志的第一次工业革命首先在英国开始,轰轰烈烈的产业革命使英国从一个落后的农业国变成了先进的工业国。作为当时工业最发达的国家,英国似乎无可厚非地应该拥有一个与生产力发展相适应的健全的职业教育体系,也不可否认,英国的工业革命确实点燃了职业教育之火。但英国的职业教育却被排斥在主流教育之外,步履艰难,发展缓慢。

Vocational education,英国职业教育,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

In the 1760s, the first industrial revolution, mainly marked by the invention and application of steam engine, began in Britain. The vigorous industrial revolution transformed Britain from a backward agricultural country into an advanced industrial country. "Sea hegemony", "the sun does not set" empire, the largest colonial countries, these words are used to describe the British. As the country with the most developed industry at that time, it seems unjustifiable for Britain to have a sound vocational education system that is in line with the development of productivity. It is also undeniable that the industrial revolution in Britain really ignited the fire of vocational education. But, as history has shown, British vocational education at that time was always excluded from the mainstream education, and its progress was slow and sluggish. The author tries to explore the reasons why British vocational education lags behind European and American countries in the 19th century from the perspective of traditional culture, especially traditional education, and tries to provide references for the development of Chinese vocational education by starting with its reform measures.

When it comes to public schools, we have to mention the unique social characteristics of Britain. Britain is a typical aristocratic society. "as early as the middle ages, the British aristocracy was the dominant class in the society, and the aristocratic spirit was the dominant value orientation. In this way, in the British society, a special education aristocracy was created to maintain the characteristics of the aristocracy, and at the same time, the middle class and the working class could keep up with the aristocracy. Public schools take on this responsibility in terms of secondary education.

English public school has a long history, it was produced in the end of the 14th century, some historians believe that the origin of public school can be traced back to the establishment of Winchester school in 1382. The public school was initially funded by private donations or public funds. As most of the graduates of public schools were given religious posts of higher social status, in line with the British people's desire to become aristocrats, the status of public schools continued to rise. "In the centuries before the industrial revolution, many of the children of the common people rose through public schools, similar to the imperial examination system in China. That is to say, public school was once the entrance and political stage of poor and outstanding youth. "In order to limit the number of students, public schools began to adopt a fee system from the end of the 17th century. In the early industrial age, British public schools were known as the most aristocratic secondary education institutions in Europe and even the world. At the same time, it was the mainstream education in Britain for a long time.

In terms of curriculum setting, classical courses such as Latin and Greek are the main courses in public schools, and the study of classical subjects is regarded as a sign of social hierarchy. By 1870, classical subjects still occupied about four-fifths of the school's class hours. "In the concept of elite education in Britain, classical subjects play an irreplaceable role. Learning classical knowledge is not only the condition for aristocrats to obtain elite membership, but also the responsibility ethics of elite members themselves. Only when they truly master the value of classical subjects can they become a real gentleman. It 'implies that mainstream ideology is the standard for interpretation and value judgment'. At the same time, public schools hold science and technology education in contempt. People think that the pursuit of scientific and technological knowledge is worthless. "At the end of the 18th century, the headmaster of tenbridge school in England, vithamo Knox, believed that the public school was a" liberal education ". "Bo" is the opposite of the narrow classes in business schools that teach vocational skills such as reading, writing and accounting, while "ya" refers to elegance, elegance and elegance. In his view, public schools should be dedicated to classical, elegant education, and the teaching of "mechanical, vulgar skills should be in secondary schools for the secondary class."

Another component of Britain's traditional secondary education is the grammar school. English grammar schools refer to educational organizations established by churches, monasteries, individuals or groups for the purpose of imparting classical knowledge and grammar. Their graduates generally enter Oxford University and Cambridge university, or become officers, doctors, judges, teachers and other upper-middle class members of society. Grammar schools have a long history, going back even to Roman times.

Throughout the history of grammar schools, we can find that grammar schools are obviously classical. Since grammar schools mainly cultivate politicians, orators and other upper class officials with extensive knowledge and eloquence, they have taken teaching classical language, rhetoric and grammar as the highest purpose and fundamental goal of education since its inception. "In the 18th century, eton grammar school and Westminster grammar school were two famous schools. Classical learning is Paramount in schools, while subjects such as French, painting, sword dancing and mathematics are treated as additions, with only a small amount of study. The boys also learn bits and pieces about nature and society. Other large grammar schools, which continue to send students directly to university, are as committed to the teaching of classical subjects as these elite schools are to the teaching of classical subjects as the new elite schools in harrow or rugby are to the teaching of classical subjects, which is a sign of the quality of their schools.

Huxley, a famous British scientist and educator, pointed out pointedly in the mid-19th century: "as for some famous public schools, when a student graduates with the highest honors, he may never have heard of modern geography, modern history and modern literature. But the teaching of Latin and Greek dominated... Therefore, when a student enters a university, he knows nothing except that he has received some faulty training in classics and mathematics.

British higher education also advocates classical education. During the 600 years from the founding of Oxford and Cambridge universities to the end of the 18th century, the number of British universities did not increase, and Oxford and Cambridge universities remained in a monopoly position. Its educational purpose and curriculum have not changed during this period, that is, to adhere to classical humanistic education. "In fact, until the 1680s, both universities were trying to exclude science and modern rationalist philosophy from their curricula, and still focused on scholasticism and classical subjects." At the same time, these two universities rejected professional education very much. People thought at that time: "although these two universities could not enable students to acquire professional skills, they could really shape a person's noble character". The student guide pointed out at the beginning of the educational literature that the university is a place to provide free education for priests and gentlemen, so its curriculum must take classical humanistic education as the core. Universities should neither be subjected to political pressure to become affiliated institutions or tools of the state and politics, nor should they be eager to get immediate benefits and accept so-called scientific or practical knowledge. It is the influence of this conservative and traditional classical educational thought that makes the achievements of scientific progress fail to be timely and fully reflected in the school curriculum. As the British philosopher and educator spencer pointed out, the shortcomings of British education at that time were very obvious, that is, "ignoring plants for the sake of flower surface, and forgetting the essence for the sake of beauty. "In British universities, science and technology are recognised as a last resort. It can be said that before the 19th century, British university education showed a situation that was quite out of step with the technological progress at that time. Attending the beginning of the 19th century, the education idea of classicism as the core of the curriculum is still very popular in the UK, and occupies the dominant position in public schools, grammar schools, Oxford University and Cambridge university. These traditional British education schools ignored practical technology and natural science, so that these knowledge which was very important in Europe and America had no place in Britain.

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