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paper代写-British park management system

2019-05-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- British park management system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的公园管理体系。英国国家公园以乡村为主,属于半自然景观,其管理体系温和而复杂,不过是在现有的政策和法令框架下生长的,公众接受度较高。在国家监督的前提下,将保护国家公园的责任完全下放给居住在公园和使用乡村地区的人。管理体系相对灵活,在不对法律做出根本变革的前提下可以较容易地改变控制或者奖励措施的强度。

park management system,英国公园管理体系,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

British national parks are mainly rural and semi-natural landscapes. National parks have two goals: to protect and optimize natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage; Provide opportunities for the public to understand and appreciate special qualities. Since the discussion on the feasibility of national parks began in the late 1920s, Britain has formed a relatively practical and mature national park management system in the past 100 years, especially in dealing with the contradiction between the nature and productivity of parks, and the public and private aspects. There are similarities between China's national scenic spots and British national parks in terms of scale and positioning, but China still has many problems in dealing with the relationship between human and nature in scenic areas, which are reflected in the rapid development of the population size of residents and tourists in scenic areas, as well as improper construction of residential areas and tourist facilities. The comprehensive introduction and review of the British national park management system can provide some clues and ideas to solve the problems of the current situation of China's scenic spots.

Britain is a small country with a high population density and a long history of human settlement. Therefore, there are almost no complete wilderness areas within its territory, and most landscapes have indelible human marks. Long-term human activities such as living, farming and industry have not only brought many beautiful landscape areas to Britain, but also made most British people always maintain an emotional connection with their rural areas.

The development of English pastoral poetry in the early 19th century further stimulated the public's yearning for rural scenery. Due to the private ownership of rural land, many non-governmental organizations were set up and fought against the rights of landowners in order to enable the public to gain access to the countryside. In 1949, Britain officially adopted the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act, which established the National protection system including National Parks. In 1951, the first National Parks were designated. So far, the UK has 15 national parks, covering its most beautiful mountain, meadow, moor, forest and wetland areas, including 10 in England, 3 in wales and 2 in Scotland. The total area of national parks accounts for 12.7% of the country's land area, of which 9.3 % is of England, 19.9 % of wales and 7.2 % of Scotland. Each National Park has an independent National Park Authority. Most National park land is privately owned, owned by local farmers or institutions such as the National Trust, as well as thousands of residents living in villages and towns. The park service sometimes owns part of the land, but in most cases it works with all the landowners in the national parks to protect the landscape.

As the original farming and animal husbandry are still continued in the national parks, and most of the land is privately owned, the national parks in Britain are productive and private, which conflicts with the natural and public nature of national parks. The contradiction between productivity and nature, between private and public nature is the unique situation and realistic problem of national park management in Britain. For this reason, the management of national parks is not simply to nationalize the land, but to take a gentler approach and set up a more complex and flexible system.

On the whole, the management system of British national parks is mild and complex, which has several advantages. Secondly, the responsibility for the protection of national parks can be completely delegated to those living in parks and using rural areas under the premise of national supervision. Finally, relatively flexible management system, on the premise of no law to make fundamental changes can more easily change control or the strength of the incentive measures, as well as in different countries adopt different methods to provide the possibility, therefore, can effectively relieve the contradictions of UK national park are two, namely the naturalness and productive, public and private.

There are obvious differences between Chinese scenic spots and British national parks, which are mainly reflected in land ownership system, law and planning system, scale of residents and tourists, and proportion of cultural factors in the formation process of scenic resources. However, there are similarities between the two types of sites. Most of China's scenic areas are also in the area of hundreds or thousands of square kilometers; The goal also includes resource protection and recreation appreciation; The value of most scenic spots includes the interaction between human and nature. In addition to scenic resources, there are also social, economic and cultural factors.

The British national park management system has certain enlightenment significance to the Chinese scenic spot management. In terms of community development, on the premise of not damaging landscape resources, the industry types of scenic community should be enriched and optimized, and the possibility of forming new social, economic and cultural values should be considered. For example, improving farming patterns in agricultural growing areas, enriching the types of agricultural products, conducting crop processing and selling featured organic agricultural products; through the incentive mechanism to guide local residents to explore the local traditional culture, so that it becomes an important part of the scenic price.

In terms of tourism development, the management department of scenic spots should deepen and refine the control of the use, volume and appearance of construction projects. From the group control to the individual control, according to the specific situation of each construction project to give control and guidance Suggestions. The stakeholder participation mechanism in scenic spot management should be improved. To promote exchanges between the scenic spot administration and local governments at all levels, local communities and tourists, especially in the formulation stage of management planning and other policies, stakeholders should be involved. The personnel selection policy of scenic spot administration should consider different stakeholders. In the approval stage of management planning, public consultation should be added to publicize the draft plan, so as to ensure that the public can understand the specific policies of the plan and make Suggestions through the Internet and other channels.

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