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英国Paper代写:Silent Spring

2019-04-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Silent Spring,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了《寂静的春天》。《寂静的春天》这本书从一个寓言开始,描述了一个美丽的村庄从陆地到海洋,从海洋到天空的突然变化,从各个方面揭示了化学农药的危险。人们普遍认为,这本书对《斯德哥尔摩公约》的缔结和签署作出了贡献。美国政府开始调查滴滴涕的危害,并于1972年下令在全国范围内禁止使用滴滴涕,许多国家紧随其后。另一方面,禁令给人们带来了积极和消极的结果。

Silent Spring,寂静的春天,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

1. Background

Published in 1962 and written by Rachel Carson, the book Silent Spring rise the problem of one kind of pesticide contamination called DDT insecticides. This book begins with a parable which portrayed the sudden change in a beautiful village from the land to the sea and from the ocean to the sky, revealing in all aspects the dangers of chemical pesticides. It is generally accepted that this book has contributed to the conclusion and signing of the Stockholm Convention. The U.S. government proceeded to investigate the harm of DDT and, in 1972, ordered a nationwide ban on the use of it, which was followed by many countries. The ban, on the other hand, causes both positive and negative result for people.

2. Chemical Insecticides and Economy

2.1 The Cost of Chemical Insecticides and Other Pollutions

Before the publication of Silent Spring, there are several world-famous environmental nuisances since industrialization. The earliest of the environmental nuisances was the 1930 Maas Valley Smoke Incident in Belgium. And after that, there were also the U.S. Donor Smoke Incident in 1948, the London Smoke Incident in 1952, twice Los Angeles Photochemical Smog Incidents in 1952 and 1955, and the Yokkaichi Asthma Incident in 1961.

Prior to the publication of Silent Spring, environmental issues in the context of industrialization and urbanization had already been recurrent across the world, but they were all treated as simple incident for the public. Chimneys or cars in the factory emit toxic fumes and caused significant respiratory damage and even death when inhaled. The logic between visible pollution and visible diseased is clearer than the invisible ones. However, in fact, pesticides, once considered safe and harmless to both people and environment, will not only kill pests but also kill other beneficial insects, small animals and plants when spraying on a large scale with aircraft. Some of these types of chemical pesticides are enriched by the action of the food chain and will eventually accumulate in humans at the top of the food chain, posing a significant health risk to humans. Rachel Carson emphasizes this kind of impact of pollution is invisible before the real influence appears through the book Silent Spring.

In the book, the author uses cases from many regions to prove that although "pollution" cannot be seen, the audible and visible problem has taken place. For instance, the DDD used in California's Clear Lake (Chapter 4) disappeared "bizarrely" in a very short of period. On the contrary, a large number of waterfowl died and no birdie hatched any more. The enrichment of the food chain "miraculously" purifies DDD in the water, but at the same time accumulates them in the waterfowl's body.

After the publication of Silent Spring, the negative impact of Chemical pollution still spread in the world. The three world-famous incidents in Japan verified Carson’s descriptions and suggestions in the book.

In 1968, Minamata disease was formally confirmed by the Japanese government. Minamata disease, including Kumamoto Munch disease and Niigata Minamata Disease, is a type of organic mercury that has been identified as methyl mercury by the action of low-level organisms such as shellfish after it has been introduced into nature. It affects humans or cats and birds through bioaccumulation. The disease would seriously affect the biological nervous system. The medical research institute of Kumamoto National University confirmed the etiology of the disease in 1956, but the Japanese government tried to hide the fact and no effective measures have been taken to stop polluting enterprises from polluting pollutants as well as no national preventive measures have been taken. The nonfeasance of government caused the disease the reappeared of Niigata Prefecture in 1965. It is till 1968, when Minamata disease was reported to the public, which shocked the world.

In the same year, Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare confirmed Toyama's "pain disease" caused by heavy metal cadmium poisoning. The painful patients first appeared in 1931, which was caused by long-term pollution of downstream water bodies and soil by the sewage of mining and metallurgy factories. Residents inhaled the malignant diseases by using cadmium and other cadmium-containing agricultural products for a long time.

It was still in 1968 that "rice bran oil incident" caused by PCB contamination has erupted in Japan. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of carcinogenic chlorine-containing organic compounds that are chemically stable and readily soluble in fat, meaning they tend to accumulate in body fat and cause long-lasting damage. PCBs and DDT, chlordane, dioxins, etc. have the same label, "POPs”.

With the impact and the discussion caused by Silent Spring as well as those incidents resulted from chemical pollution, from the 1960s, DDT has been stopped production and used in various parts of the country. By the 1970s, DDT was a banned product declared by all countries in the world.

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