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英国Paper代写:The loss of civic morality in the Roman empire

2019-04-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The loss of civic morality in the Roman empire,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了罗马帝国公民道德的沦丧。在罗马共和国前期,罗马公民在道德方面堪称典范。但随着罗马对外战争的不断胜利,罗马公民的道德规范遭到腐蚀,公民道德的沦丧对罗马的社会风气、政治以及军队产生了极大的负面影响,动摇了罗马的统治基础,最终导致罗马帝国的衰亡。

civic morality,罗马公民道德沦丧,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

Levi once said: "no nation in the world is greater than our country, pure or be given better noble precedent, no any country as long as we committed to maintain the freedom of their own and not indulge in the love of money and luxury, so far, there is no the place like we advocate simple and simple life." This sentence is exaggerated, but it also reflects the social atmosphere of early Rome. In the early days of the republic, the Roman citizens lived a simple life with high morality and advocated frugality and poverty. As sarustius wrote, "virtue is in the home and in the field of battle, and the greatest harmony is shown everywhere, and greed is hardly known." Living in luxury is a kind of bad behavior, which is often criticized and even punished by the law. Cato persuaded the senate in 181bc to pass a law taxing luxury goods such as perfume, silk and educated slaves. The fine social atmosphere enabled the Romans to develop the moral concept of self-supporting, valuing virtue over money, purifying the official atmosphere, ensuring the combat effectiveness of the army, and laying the foundation for the victory of external expansion.

Successive foreign conquests brought a steady flow of wealth to Rome, and material life was suddenly enriched. So luxury dominated the upper class, and wealth and power became symbols of status. According to Levi's account, the Roman luxury began after the victory of the Asian war, the Romans "for the first time to the bronze bed, precious bedspreads, carpets and other linen fabrics imported into Rome... The banquet itself began to be laid out with great precision and expense. The upper classes of Rome were soon in the habit of pursuing extravagance, extravagance, and pleasure. The aristocrats kept up with the joneses, showcased their wealth by throwing lavish parties. For example, Caesar, who was not rich at that time, even lent money to hold a banquet and organized sword slaves to perform sword fighting for many times. This race for wealth became the fashion of the upper classes at the end of the Roman republic. The imperial Nero was even more extravagant, requiring 1,400 wagons to carry his goods and 500 donkeys to provide his wife with donkey milk for bathing.

It is no wonder that the rich take pride in luxury. What is terrible is that the ordinary free people also get into this bad habit. They begin to despise labor and covet wealth and ease. Many of the prodigal became hooligan proles, living on state handouts, and social parasites. Moral decay pervaded all classes from the aristocracy to ordinary citizens, greatly corroded the body of the Roman nation, and brought extremely serious consequences to the Roman society. The citizens of Rome, in their pursuit of wealth, glory, and knowledge, did not realize that the spirit of restraint, restriction, and tolerance that characterized earlier moral values was rapidly becoming obsolete. Extravagance eroded the Romans' traditional morality, stifled freedom, solidarity and creativity, and sapped their enterprising spirit. The loss of traditional moral values laid a hidden danger for the decline and fall of the Roman empire. "Luxury hangs over this city like a demon," marveled Levi, "and the corruption within Rome has eroded the vitality of a people that had long been superior."

The early Roman state was founded on the basis of small peasant economy, and the idea of labor glory was deeply rooted in Rome. The related literature once said: "our ancestors praised a good man when they praised him is a good farmer, a good farmer. All who are so praised are considered to have attained the highest glory. "The strongest man and the strongest soldier are born among the peasants, and the interests of the peasants are the cleanest and safest. There is no ill will in such a profession.

With the continuous victory of Rome's foreign war and the great wealth of material wealth, the Romans gradually abandoned the glorious moral concept of labor and began to despise labor and put all their energy into sensory enjoyment. In order to ingratiate itself with the citizens, the senate increased the number of days of festival, which was the only regular festival in Rome at the beginning. The number of days of festival continued to increase, reaching an exaggerated 175 days in the fourth century AD. For nearly half a year, the Romans indulged in watching animal fights, dramas and other performances, which seriously delayed social production. Instead of scythes and plows, a large number of free men "were holed up in the cities, preferring the theatre and the racecourse to the care of the corn and the vineyard, and all their days were spent wandering the streets and arenas, idle, living a parasitic life of unearned gain. The state has to spend a lot of income on them every year, and the financial burden of the state increases greatly. The citizens' desire for pleasure and disdain for labor reduced the number of laborers, and the rulers had to shift the burden onto the common people and slaves. Small farmers, who pride themselves on producing, feel that the more they produce, the more they are squeezed, and thus lose interest in their work. The slaves resisted in a passive way. They cultivate the land in a very bad way, sow it willfully when sowing seeds, waste a great number of seeds, or cause losses by deliberate negligence. Producers' contempt for labor, destruction and resistance to production eventually led to the paralysis of economic production. It was not surprising that the Roman empire fell into an economic crisis, and the increasingly serious economic crisis deepened the crisis of the empire's rule.

In the early years of the republic, Roman politics and morality were closely combined, and public officials were recognized as those who had made outstanding contributions to the country or enjoyed a high moral reputation among the masses. After being appointed consul, valerius said to his soldiers, "the position of consul is a reward for virtue, not for blood." This was a period when officials were not paid, associated with an emphasis on virtue and honor, and many officials made history for their probity. Publius valerius, who had been consul four times, died without funeral expenses, and was buried at Rome's expense. Roman citizens' emphasis on traditional morality made them keep a clear mind in the face of the temptation of money, even in the face of great material temptation, they did not use their power to take bribes. "In my opinion, it is nothing to own gold," said the archon, "it is nothing to rule over people who own gold." But with the deterioration of civic morality and social ethos, Roman politics also began to become increasingly corrupt. Officials are willing to sell their moral traditions in pursuit of power and wealth. Corruption and bribery have become common phenomena, and bribery for election is very common. Many of the political careerists of the last years of the republic went to dictatorship by buying votes. After the second century BC, the bribery of election in the official election of the Roman republic became more and more serious. With the passage of time, vote buying becomes more and more widespread. This behavior is no longer a bad habit affecting some voters, but develops into a collective behavior. In 60 BC, when Caesar was running for consul, he made an agreement with another candidate, luc us: "since luc us has more money and less wealth, he will give money in the name of himself and Caesar to the electors of sendelia generously. At this time, bribery was gradually institutionalized, and even there were agents providing election services for candidates and institutions providing election funds for bribers. In addition to vote buying, another major impact of the moral bankruptcy of Roman citizens on politics is the corruption of the administrative system. To some extent, the prosperity of Rome can be attributed to the wisdom of the emperor, the perfection of the ruling mechanism and the honesty of the officials. But as authoritarian power grew, moral decay spread across the hierarchy, eroding the political pillars of the Roman empire. In the later period of the empire, the formation of the absolute monarchy led to the extravagance of the highest ruling group and the corruption of the bureaucracy. For example, in the later years of Constantine's reign, he squandered all the wealth he had accumulated in the palace and squeezed the people as the only source of funds for his extravagance. His cronies are even more brazen in their looting and corruption, which can be detected in all branches of the government administration. The fatalness of the emperor led to the disputes and turbulence within the whole bureaucratic group and the low administrative efficiency of the state, which resulted in the situation that the big officials were greedy for the small ones. The provincial governments became a new source of wealth for the members of the senate. The tax burden of the people became heavier and heavier. The praemorian generals abandoned their piety and patriotism for personal gain, frequently usurped power and civil wars, and the Roman empire was often paralyzed. All this accelerated the decline of the Roman empire.

Rome's early history is a history of war, in such an environment, the Roman citizens developed the courage, loyalty and patriotism of the warrior spirit. Civic soldiers, whose main fighting force was the civilian soldiers, attached great importance to morality and honor, and regarded bravery, loyalty and patriotism as their highest moral standards, which were the pillars of the Roman army. In the heyday of Rome, citizens' patriotism, noble moral sense, sense of honor and martial spirit ensured the strong fighting capacity of the army and maintained the prosperity and stability of the empire.

But behind the boom lies corruption. After the foreign conquest stopped, the comfortable life and extravagant social atmosphere eroded the enterprising spirit of citizen soldiers and eroded their sense of morality and honor. Soldiers become greedy and lazy, military discipline lax, marauding brutality, for their own selfish and even sold out the country. In the wars of Judea, juguda won many victories by buying off Roman generals. He said, "if a buyer can be found for him, the whole city of Rome can be bought." "There is a hidden element of corruption in all the images of contentment... The spark of genius is extinguished, even the warrior spirit is gone... The descendants of the bravest leaders of the past are all content to be ordinary citizens... Unconsciously become everyone to live a lazy and leisurely life. With the overall moral decline of the officers and soldiers, Rome's powerful military power was increasingly used for personal purposes. In order to maintain his rule, the emperor relied more and more heavily on and favored the army. The emperor severus even allowed "the soldiers to wear gold rings to satisfy their vanity, to live comfortably in the barracks, and to live as comfortably as possible". As the foreign wars gradually decreased, the army focused on the civil war. The praetorian guard abolished, established, usurped and killed many times. From 238 AD to 253 AD, Rome changed ten emperors in a rapid pace, and many bloody intercannibalism occurred in the process of supporting and removing the emperors. The degradation of the army not only aggravated the crisis of the empire but also greatly weakened its own fighting capacity, unable to continue to conquer the outside world and losing the ability to defend the border. The Roman army, dominated by citizen soldiers, had actually disintegrated, and the military rulers had to recruit barbarians to fill their ranks. What the Roman rulers did not expect, however, was that it was barbarian mercenaries who eventually brought the Roman empire to its doom.

In the early days of the republic, the citizens of Rome were exemplary in morality. They were industrious and brave, pious and trustworthy, plain living, law-abiding and law-loving. Strict civic ethics made the Roman citizens into hardworking peasants, fearless soldiers, and officials who put the national interests above everything else. They created a strong collective of citizens and made the vast Roman empire. However, with the continuous victory of Rome's foreign war, the moral norms of Roman citizens were corroded, and the decline of civic morality had a great negative impact on Rome's social ethos, political life, social production and army, shaking the foundation of Rome's rule. Early Christian writers and later historians firmly asserted that "the decline and fall of the Roman empire was the inevitable result of the decadence of human sexual relations, the extravagance and debauchery of life.

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