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英国Paper代写:Corruption and Economic Growth

2019-03-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Corruption and Economic Growth,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了腐败与经济增长。腐败,指的是在个人层面滥用政治权力以获取经济利益,这在贫穷国家很常见,因为那里的立法和司法系统不能有效地约束政府官员的腐败行为。有一种理论认为,腐败程度越高,经济增长就越快,因此有人认为腐败是经济增长的一个积极因素。然而,这些主张混淆了共存与相关性。经济增长是由多种因素决定的,不单单取决于腐败等特定因素。由腐败推动经济增长,或由反腐败抑制经济增长的想法,是一种非常片面的理论。总的来说,腐败的本质对经济增长弊大于利。

Corruption,Economic Growth,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

Corruption is the abuse of political power for economic gains on the individual level. It is commonly observed in poor countries, where the legislative and judicial systems are not effective enough to bind corruptive behaviors of the government officials. There has emerged a theory that high level of corruption is accompanied with high economic growth, leading to the claims that corruption can be a positive factor on economic growth. However, these claims have confused co-existence with relevance. Economic growth is determined by multiple factors, and is not solely dependent on such a specific factor as corruption. The ideas of economic growth fueled by corruption, or the repression of economic growth by anti-corruption, are merely an illusion. The recognition of the positivity of corruption has ignored factors of country size and culture. Thus, it must be clarified that the intrinsic natures of corruption are much more harmful than beneficial to economic growth.

Uneven distribution of the social wealth is relevant to every member of the society. To some degree, the achievement of equality in social wealth is even more difficult than the sustainment of economic growth. A large income gap between different social classes is found in most developing countries, and the main reason for the inequality is power corruption (Mishra, 2008, p.41). When the emphasis of person interest becomes dominant for government officials, the level of corruption is no longer on the individual level. Large interest groups representing the monetary gains can be formed within the administration, becoming powerful forces that obstruct economic reform, to defend their own profits. Most developed economies have a strong middle class. In comparison, the social economic structure in poor and corrupt countries is composed of much more polarized groups. People with power and money grow richer, while the working class continue to be exploited. With corruption, government officials are more capable of gathering social resources that can be otherwise used for economic activities that benefit the general public. In the long run, corruption becomes a major factor that leads to uneven social wealth distribution.

Corruption is also a sign of cultural isolation in the globalized context. In the past centuries, there was no clear distinction between public and private interests. Corruption may even have been tolerated by the public, based on the scale. The trend of globalization brought market economy into many countries, gradually creating an awareness and definition of corruption. Economic integration on the international level may result in corruption in the lower administrative levels. However, such a trend will diminish with the increasing international communication and exchange (Sandholtz and Gray, 2003, p.773). The introduction of foreign capital in the free international market is the main driver of economic growth in a country. Meanwhile, corruption is but a byproduct of the entrance of foreign investment. it does not have a direct cause-effect relationship with economic growth independently. The highest level of corruption is often found in countries that are in transitional phases (Montinola & Jackman, 2002, p.156). Some argue that anti-corruption campaigns waged by governments from the developing countries are a form of repression, that is detrimental for the free market. However, the relationship between political influence and degree of corruption is not linear (Montinola & Jackman, 2002, p.162). Instead, both dictatorship and complete democracy have the lower levels of corruption. Again, the battling forces of the market and the political system indicate that these developing countries are only in the transitional phases. Whatever the process may be, the ultimate goal of both economic development and a corruption-free administration should not be diminished.

Corruption is often associated with the lack of government efficiency, and a comprehensive legislative system. Conducting business activities in corrupt-free countries is fairly straight-forward: there are few external worries beyond the business level, so that companies can concentrate on developing good products, making marketing plans and distribute their resources on manufacturing, etc. In comparison, companies have to deal with the officials in highly corrupt countries. And understanding of the personal preferences and the conflicting interests within and between levels. Social activities inevitably consume a large amount of energy for companies to succeed in the market (Svensson, 2005, p.37). This significantly increases the cost of conducting business in corrupt countries.

The increased costs of economic activities make corruption extremely detrimental for small and innovative businesses. Start-ups require tremendous support from the government, both in resources and in regulation (Svensson, 2005, p.30). In developed economies, special treatment for such companies enable them to obtain permits much easier, with potential cuts in tax as well. Things may be entirely different in poor and corrupt economies. Innovators and business starters may not have established social connections to reach relevant government officials, or the money for bribery purposes. As a result, people with talent have no choice but to conduct in low-level jobs, since they are unable to conduct innovative activities to attract capital, skills, and intellect. On the social scale, an inequality is created by corruption, for individuals to obtain opportunities to break free from their existing social classes. It is rather difficult to calculate exactly how much of these lost chances have influenced economic growth. However, it is undeniable that corruption is the major source of difficulty for business entrepreneurship, whether it is MNCs or small innovative start-ups.

Through data collection from 58 countries and empirical research, Mauro (1995, p.681) has found that corruption will lead to lower investment in a country, and lower economic growth accordingly. Mauro is among the first in the world to conduct research on corruption on the international and comparative levels. Through data analysis, a positive relationship between government efficiency and political stability is established (Mauro 1995, p.705). In a political system, the actions of one government official is not isolated, but have profound influences on the others as well. By raising the amount of bribery, a general trend of corruption is created that would diminish government efficiency on the whole. As a result, economic growth is compromised by the competing needs of government officials and the increased political instability. Building on the conclusions by Mauro, Mo (2001, p. 67) established a new analytical framework to explore potential channels of corruption’s influence on economic growth. It has been found that a one percent increasing in corruption level will lead to a decrease in economic growth by 0.72%. Again, political instability becomes the major reason (53%) for such an influence, which aligns with Mauro’s findings. Corruption’s influence on the human capital and private investment are another two important channels affecting economic growth.

There are some research indicating that corruption has positive effects on economic growth. Most of these arguments can be categorized as the “efficiency argument.” These conclusions are often derived in specific contexts. For example, when regulations from the government do not conform to the economic and market norms in a country, corruption does offer a shortcut for companies to achieve desired results without having to conforming to the tedious regulations. Sometimes, the efficiency of administration in poor countries can be so low, that corruption becomes the much more effective and economic alternative. The amount of bribery may serve as motivations for government officials to work harder. There is also the argument that the amount of bribery paid to the government officials are highly ‘customized (Mishra, 2008, p.23).’ Corrupt government officials tend to vary the nature and amount of request to companies that matches the companies’ financial abilities. In exchange to the amount paid, companies are often benefited from the queuing process. With reduced waiting time, it is easier for companies to seize market opportunities and generate revenue as a form of “compensation” for the bribes. In these circumstances, corruption serves as a “lubricant” to clear the obstacles in business operation (Mo, 2001, p.66). When most of the corruption activities are motivated by such needs, the economy on the greater scale may even be benefited from it.

While the efficiency argument seems appealing and logical, they apply only to specific cases and are not universal rules of economy. Economic growth in the long term is determined by two major factors. Firstly, the accumulations of resources, physical, and human capital. Secondly, the productivity and efficiency in applying these resource in economic activities (Mishra, 2008, p.26). This makes the economic growth fueled by corruption temporary and unsustainable. By offering and allowing bribery, government officials become increasingly encouraged in corruption activities, including not only bribery, but increased and unnecessary social interactions, establishing social connections, asking for gifts and favors, etc. It is in the nature of human beings to be greedy and competitive. Corruption would significantly expand the desires of government officials, making them wanting even more from the companies. Corruption is associated with not only poverty, but also lower level of human capital. Measuring the average years of education received, a negative relationship can be observed between this human capital indicator and corruption (Mishra, 2008, p.19). In the long term, a vicious cycle is created, and social resources and human capital would not be efficiently applied to support economic growth.

The effect of corruption on economic growth is also highly relevant to the characteristic of the countries themselves. It has been found that corruption is a negative influence on the economic growth and foreign investment for the majority of developing countries (Rock and Bonnett, 2004, p.999). The detrimental effect of corruption is especially prominent for smaller developing countries. However, for large East Asian newly industrialized economies, corruption is found to be positively correlated with growth. This paradox is explained with the intrinsic differences between small and large countries. Larger countries have a larger domestic market, with more suppliers and labor resources available as well. The longer dependence on import substitution policies thus enable these countries to mitigate the negative effects of corruption. In large countries, corruption is more likely to be treated as a normal way of conducting business. For example, socializing and personal relationship, otherwise known as “guanxi,” are emphasized with equal amount of importance to regular business activities. The large market, abundant resources and human capital act as incentives for companies to enter despite the existence of corruption (Rock and Bonnett, 2004, p.1000). These advantages are non-existent for small developing countries.

Before market economy and globalization started to enter the third world, a relatively even distribution of social wealth is observed in some countries, such as China. Highly concentrated political power serves as strong limiting factors that prevent government officials from corruptive actions. However, with the introduction of foreign investment and the widening income gap in the early 90s, the influence of political ideology was significantly diminished. It became almost inevitable for officials to collude with business persons. Under such circumstances, industries that are capital intensive may gain tremendous growth with government support. South Korea is such an example. However, such growth patterns are also unsustainable. In order to restore the high momentum of growth that was dying down, South Korea paid high prices in combating corruption (Rock and Bonnett, 2004, p.1010). In comparison, the huge market potential of China and its large population of educated workforce has entirely mitigated the impact of corruption. This does not mean that the fight against corruption is a waste of resources. For counties such as China, the ratio between positive and negative influencers for economic growth would not remain constant. The marginal returns of market size and human capital are already diminishing. Worsening government corruption under such circumstances would develop into uncontrollable trends to drag down the economic growth in the coming years. Therefore, larger economies have the same level of incentive, if not more, to combat corruption.

In conclusion, although the degree of harm by corruption is highly dependent on the motivation of corruption and the characteristics of the countries, the detrimental effects of corruption is undeniable in the long term. The efficiency arguments are logical. But through an analysis of these arguments, it is not difficult to see that all these arguments are based on the unsatisfactory features of the government institution, including weak legislative and judicial systems, unnecessary and over-regulating laws, isolated local culture from the international norms, etc. It is thus reasonable to conclude that corruption is essentially the malfunctioning of an administration. Corruption has a series of detrimental effects to economic growth, including widening income gaps, inequality in opportunity and social wealth distribution, increase in business costs, and more difficulties for innovative start-ups. It is thus necessary for all developing economies to set the establishment of a corruption-free administration as a goal in the long term.

References

Mauro, P. 1995, "Corruption and Growth", The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 681-712.

Mishra, A. 2008, "Corruption and Economic Growth: Implications for Human Development", Technical Background Paper to Human Development Report, (UNDP).

Mo, P.H. 2001, "Corruption and Economic Growth", Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 66-79.

Montinola, G.R. & Jackman, R.W. 2002, "Sources of Corruption: A Cross-Country Study", British Journal of Political Science, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 147-170.

Rock, M.T. & Bonnett, H. 2004, "The Comparative Politics of Corruption: Accounting for the East Asian Paradox in Empirical Studies of Corruption, Growth and Investment", World Development, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 999-1017.

Sandholtz, W. & Gray, M.M. 2003, "International Integration and National Corruption", International Organization, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 761-800.

Svensson, J. 2005, "Eight Questions about Corruption", The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 19-42.

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