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英国Paper代写:Cultural Influences of the Natural and Environmental Devastations in China

2019-01-29 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Cultural Influences of the Natural and Environmental Devastations in China,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中国自然和环境破坏的文化影响。自然和环境问题的文化影响体现在中国社会的许多不同的方面,比如传统文化的转换和放弃信仰,纪录片和电影旨在提高公众意识,互联网和社会媒体的力量,以及如何现代艺术品的视觉和表演艺术家都是在中国受到生活环境的影响。通过分析,我们看到了一条发展的道路,也注意到了不同年代、不同教育水平群体的鲜明特征。还需要做更多的工作来找出文化的影响细节。曾经的经济需求让人们偏离了轨道,环境的破坏通过对不同文化力量的影响创造了文化意识。

Environmental Devastations,环境破坏文化影响,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

Introduction

The major purpose of the research is to understand the cultural influences of the environmental devastations in China, from the perspectives of the journalists, visual and performance artists, as well as the public. After some research on the historic records of the struggles with nature and the many social forces involved in it, the correlation between social forces and public awareness is established. This awareness has had profound influences on how people think about the relationship between human and nature. Inspired by the environmental problems, documentaries and paintings are made by artists and journalists approaching the problem from different perspectives. On a more popular scale, performance art as well as the forces of social media play an important role in influencing the environmental culture of modern China. The major sources of the research are academic papers, personal observations of the social patterns, data from relevant websites, and a visual analysis of the related artworks. Since social media is playing an increasingly important role in Chinese culture, observations will be made on the cultural influences in social media as well. This research is significant and intriguing since it reveals how the natural and environmental devastations have influenced the modern Chinese culture and art, in a country with the largest population in the world.

Abandonment of Traditional Cultural Phylisophy

The pollution problems in China are largely due to the rush for economic development and industrialization in the 1980s and 1990s, which have changed the harmonious way people lived with nature. In traditional Chinese culture, there are countless poetry, paintings and philosophies on the greatness of nature and the importance for human to make peace with it. The traditional cosmology of the Chinese people always emphasized on how people should respect nature (Kelly, 2016). Things changed drastically in the 20th century. With the initialization of modernization, Chinese people began to alienate from the nature. As a result, China suffered from the desertification of the largest scale in the world since the 1980s. Overgrazing, overcultivation, deforestation, weak laws and ignorance are among the major contributors of the desertification (Geocase, 2014). Under the encouragement of the government, coals and steel became the symbol of development, while trees were cut down to make way for the crops (Geng, 2013). There are still debates on whether it is justified to push for economy developments at the cost of the nature. However, the Chinese government was not doing enough to stop the problem at its early stages (Wang, 2013). Such an attitude towards environment and the nature has reflected a transformation of natural and environmental culture of the Chinese people.

Films and Documentary

The natural and environmental awareness was initialized with a topic relevant to the majority: air quality. China’s economy boomed in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but the public awareness of the natural and environmental issues was still falling behind, and the cultural influences of environmental problems in China was minimal. One of the turning points was in 2008, when China was to host the Olympic Games for the first time. The reports of complains from foreign athletes made more and more people care about the issue. With millions of dollars inverted, the improved air quality in Beijing gave people hope, especially those who were already suffering from air pollution. The Beijing case also served as a role model for later implementations and enforcement of environmental policies in other areas of China (Ju, 2009). In 2015, the journalist and famous host Chai Jing published an environmental documentary fully sponsored by her, Under the Dome. The film, which targeted the smog problems in China was viewed by millions within weeks, making the air pollution problem the most heated discussions of the year (Yuan, 2015). Different from the year 2008, when the issue blew off soon with the end of the Olympic Games, the documentary made more and more people think, especially the young and educated generation.

The New Social Media Trend

China had a rather late entrance into the age of the new media and the internet, but the development of these new forces is among the fastest in the world. The internet has become the major platform for the public to express their feelings about the environmental problems in China, especially air pollution. One of the most popular websites in China, Weibo (the Chinese version of Twitter), with the largest internet traffic volumes in the world, has become the main platform for environmental information to be communicated to the public. The concept of PM2.5, first heard in the news during the Olympics, introduced much more in-depth by Under the Dome, have now integrated into the daily lives of the Chinese netizens through Weibo. In a way, PM2.5 became the chance for the Chinese public to be more involved in the natural and environmental challenges (Huang, 2015). Since 2014, the measurement of PM2.5 has been incorporated into the national air quality standard in China, and the values can be seen in almost all weather apps in China nowadays (You, 2014). The interest in the topic of air quality has also spread into other topics, such as wildlife protection, reforestation and natural reserves. Without an effective way to help solve the problem directly, the public reacted to the problem in a self-mockery manner. The phrase “Beijing Blue” was invented, which shows the rarity of blue-sky days that appear in Beijing. People would take photos of the “Beijing Blue” and post them in their social networks jokingly. In addition to humor, the Chinese netizens help drawing the outlines of landmarks in different cities that suffered from smog, which is another example of how internet culture is influenced by environmental problems in China.

Figure 1: Outlines of Famous Landmarks in Smog Weather, Beijing

Visual and Performance Art

There are also numerous amounts of visual art inspired by the subject of environmental pollution in China. The three artworks in figure 3, 4, and 5 have shown people how the artists are thinking on the environmental disasters in China. They question how the relationship between human and nature should be in a modern society, the real influences of environmental problem to the world that we live in, as well as how the interpersonal relationship is shaped by such influences. Performance art is another cultural aspect under influence, which is much closer to the daily lives of the public than visual art. In figure 5, an artist named Nut Brother walks around Beijing in 100 days, collecting dust from the streets with a vacuum machines. He then made a brick out of the particles that he collected, demonstrating to people how severe the air pollution is (Art, 2015). Figure 6, shows different occasions where the element of mask is used by performance artists. It can be seen that the influence of environmental devastations has deeply integrated into the modern Chinese culture within decades.

Figure 2: Smog 5, by Ma Guobin, 2014

Figure 3: The Kiss, by Ye Fu, 2013

Figure 4: Mirror, by Cai Lixian, Shenzhen, 2015

Figure 5. Performance Artist, Nut Brother

Figure 6. The Mask Becomes a Cultural Element

Conclusions

Overall, the cultural influences of natural and environmental issues are embodied in many different aspects of the Chinese society: the transformations and abandonment of the traditional cultural beliefs, documentary and films aiming to raise public awareness, the forces of the internet and social media, as well as how modern artworks of both visual and performance artists are influenced by the living environments in China. A path of development is seen though the analysis, and the distinctive features of different generations, and groups of different educational level is also noted in the research. More work needs to be done to find out the cultural implications in detail. It was once the economic needs that drove people off the track, and the environmental devastations that created the cultural awareness through its influences on different cultural forces.

Began in 2015, the largest online payment company in China started the program named Ant Financial, which provides carbon accounts for 0.45 billion alipay users in China. All low-carbon activities through the alipay apps will be recorded and added into the carbon account (JPMNews, 2016). Once the amount of carbon reduction reaches a value, the company would plant a real tree in the northwestern areas of China to fight desertification and help reforestation. The project has been successful and popular so far. It has shown the sign of returning of the traditional Chinese cultural beliefs. Through these campaigns a sense of responsibility for the nature and environment is established in the younger generations. Such efforts show promising signs in how the public awareness is to be shaped further in the future.

Works Cited

Art Aims Spotlight on China's Smog Woes. (2015). Wall Street Journal (Online)

Geng, Y., Sarkis, J., Ulgiati, S., & Zhang, P. (2013). Environment and development. measuring china's circular economy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6127), 1526.

Geocase. (2014). Desertification and Land Degradation in China. Accessed in Feb 2017 from: http://www.geocases1.co.uk/printable/Desertification%20and%20land%20degredation%20in%20China.htm

Hihey.com (2015). The Fall of Beijing and The Survival of Visual Artist. Accessed in March, 2017 from: http://www.hihey.com/article-818.html

Huang, G. (2015). PM2.5 opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in china. Environmental Pollution, 197, 313-315. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.001

JPMNews. (2016). Ant Financial Has Provided Carbon Accounts for 0.45 Billion Alipay Users. Accessed in Feb 2017 from: http://www.jpm.us/article-446-1.html

Ju, A. (2009). Improved air quality during Beijing Olympics could inform pollution-curbing policies. Accessed in Feb 2017 from: http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2009/07/beijing-air-quality-improved-during-olympics

Kelly, B. (2016). "Air Pollution in Modern China and the Wisdom in The Traditional Chinese Thought". Senior Independent Study Theses. Paper 7335. Accessed in March 2017 from: http://openworks.wooster.edu/independentstudy/7335

Wang, F., Pan, X., Wang, D., Shen, C., & Lu, Q. (2013). Combating desertification in China: Past, present and future. Land use Policy, 31, 311-313. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol. 2012.07.010

You, M. (2014). Addition of PM2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of china and the contribution to air pollution control: The case study of wuhan, china. The Scientific World Journal, 2014 doi:10.1155/2014/768405

Yuan, R. (2015). Under the Dome: will this film be China’s environmental awakening? Accessed in Feb 2017 from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/05/under-the-dome-china-pollution-chai-jing

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