欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

Paper代写范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

Paper代写-Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway

2019-01-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了雨、蒸汽与速度:西部大铁路。透纳的《雨、蒸汽与速度:西部大铁路》是一幅油画,于1844年展出,它结合了维多利亚时代的铁路和田园风光,描绘了英国铁路早期的新交通方式,展示了一辆蒸汽火车行驶在梅登黑德桥上场景。

The Great Western Railway,雨、蒸汽与速度:西部大铁路,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

J. M. W. Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway is an oil painting that was exhibited in 1844. It combines Victorian railways with pastoral scenes, depicting the new mode of transport in the early railway years in Britain. The “Railway Mania” peaked in 1844, as the country opened the Bristol and Exeter extension of the Great Western Railway. Thousands of Exeter residents clustered along the streets whilst bands played. When crowds are displaying the public enthusiasm for the passing trains, there are Nimbies feeling outraged at the completion of numerous railway lines because the peace of their habitats was threatened by the railway. Under this background, it is not surprisingly that comments on the oil painting are divided into positive and negative, which will be discussed later.

For an objective description of the work, what jumps into our view is a steam engine heading along a railway bridge in a rainy day. Turner uses diagonal forms to construct his subject matter, providing a dynamic feel to the drawing. With an effect of speed, the locomotive represents the force of modernity within the natural environment. The bridge on the left helps balance the visual weight of the image, at the same time when adding natural elements to the painting such that creating an emotional feeling of harmony between nature and technologies. If the bridge was excluded, the oncoming train would give us an illusion of speed improvement, albeit imbalanced. Turner’s use of the diagonal line is one of the composition techniques either in drawing or photographs. It brings a sense of dynamics and tensions to viewers, drawing their eyes in a particular direction.

When our sight is attracted to the train on the diagonal line, the color contrast begins to have an effect. The sharper and darker shape formed on top of the train is also a vertical rectilinear object that is the tallest part of all the shapes. The brooding black color is a stark contrast with the soft warm and cool colors around it. The loose brushstrokes that are used to splash soft colors on the canvas create a sense of blurring, whilst the sharpness of the locomotive top protrudes out and draws our eyes to it as the center of the composition. “Blurs and soft zones function like shadows and highlights; they minimize certain details in the image and redirect a viewer’s attention within the frame. Like the rest stops in a piece of music, creatively manipulated softness can empower a photograph’s impact.” [1] This is the reason why the painting is like using a camera shooting with a very large aperture, which makes things blur as background and also makes something really sharp.

The other effect exerted by the blurriness of colors on viewers is the pattern of haziness which provides an atmosphere for the whole work. Many critics regard Rain, Steam and Speed as a gloomy interpretation of the railway era. For example, In Raymond William’s terms, “residual tendencies collide fiercely with emergent, generating unresolved tension in a fluid structure of feeling” [2]. But I disagree with this opinion from the perspective of color usage. As a master of the Baroque style which conveys emotion through the use of colors and brushworks, Turner knows well that vibrant color helps relate viewers to the positive side of emotions in the painting. He chooses very different tones in his palette, endowing the landscape (representing the force of nature) with the predominating color of watery blues, creams and golds. The light blue and golden landscape and sky create a soft ambient light that weakens the otherwise dullness in the rainy day. In this way, images and the emotions that Turner creates can resonate with the viewers. What is more, there is no evidence suggesting that Turner is pessimistic about the coming age of steam. According to John Gage, Turner is always interested in scientific developments and new technology. His arrangement of the running hare before the racing train and the ploughman near the railway well coordinates with the then social response to the opening of the railway lines: “Travelers’ characteristic response to early railway journeys: excitement at moving, for the first time in human history, faster than a galloping horse, but mixed with fear for the dreadful consequences which an accident might bring.” [3]

Therefore, instead of depicting the terrifying and threatening side of the Industrial Revolution, this oil painting is more like a cause for celebration. “As a sublime experience, speed, a novel factor of the ‘new’ 19th century life, offers its power to overcome nature (water and sky)” [4]. The picture includes a hare and a locomotive as a pair, both of which are on the Maidenhead railway bridge that is approximately 80 meters long. As a conventional sign of speed, the hare is compared with the recently-popularized symbol for the same abstract concept, the railroad engine. John Gage and many other authors have indicated that it is beyond the locomotives’ normal speed range to overtake hares at that time. The mean speed of an 1844 train was remarkably lower than the maximum velocity of a hare. Actually, the steam engine of the period was capable of running at “the then-unheard of speed of thirty-three miles an hour.” Specifically speaking, when it was heading to or off Maidenhead Station without the attempt to beat a record, a train would have been travelling at well below 40 mph. As a comparison, the speed of a hare falls within the range of 30 mph and 40 mph over a distance of around 90 meters, and at 50 mph over twenty meters. In the painting, either the locomotive or the hare have been halfway across the 80-meter-or-so bridge, and the hare is well ahead. Therefore, Instead of facing certain death and remarks, “the hare was (and is), as Turner must have been very well aware, the fastest animal native to Britain. That alone makes it the better candidate to symbolize speed”. [5]

Another viewpoint held by Turner’s critics is that Rain, Steam and Speed expresses the casualties of technological progress and the impracticability of unchanging. In their points of view, the most enduring characteristic of Turner’s image is radical instability. However, the non-stop acceleration of time was actually one of the fundamental dynamics of a society, which is cited by Karl Marx as the “annihilation of space by time”. He also declared in his article The Communist Manifesto that the “constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones… All that is solid melts into air.” [6]

In my point of view, Rain, Steam and Speed can be seen as a joyous celebration of the power of the advanced technology. The blur pattern of the artistic world and the threatening technological world encouraged Monet and other painters of the abstract, impressionistic style of drawing. Monet and Pissarro had seen the Rain, Steam and Speed in London. They were inspired by his depiction of natural scenes and the instantaneity or immediacy of changing environments. The difference is, Turner attempts to paint what he can actually see in an impressionistic style, with his emotion being expressed in the painting; whilst impressionists reflect the colors, shadows or shapes of the landscape. “The impressionists was recognized by some French critics as a worthy experiment in abstract ideas in painting. Pissarro would later encourage his son, Lucien, to study this painting.” [7]

All in all, the authentic expression of Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed is not weakened but strengthened by the depiction of the contrast between the blur natural scenes and the sharply-portrayed dark train. Although some critics refer the hare and the train as providing a sense of tension and threat to the peaceful and tranquil pastoral scenes, actually Turner expand the notion of the sublime (which is originally natural phenomena) into machines that are created by the powerful humanity with the aspiration to make scientific advancement. Considering that the 19th century is also a century of photography, the painting resembles a photo taken at the spot, especially when the diagonal lines are used to protrude the center of focus and to deepen the depth of the whole picture.

Works Cited

1. Jim Cornfield. “The Soft Touch: A Photographer's Guide to Manipulating Focus”. U.S.A. Amherst Media. 2015. Print.

This book expounds the art of image manipulation by providing the knowledge and techniques to create evocative effects. Like short brushstrokes in an impressionistic drawing, soft zones and blurs achieve the similar effect to highlights and shadows.

2. R. Williams. Marxirm and Obrature (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1977). pp. 121-35. Print.

3. Ian Carter. “Rain, Steam and What?” Britain. The Oxford Art Journal. 20 Feb. 1997. Print.

This article describes the journey of creation and the influence of Turner’s work. Rain, Steam and Speed is a disturbing formal character that conveys a sense of tensional movements in space.

4. Samuel Smiles. “Lives of the Engineers”. Cambridge. The MIT Press. 1966. Print.

This book includes stories of 18th and 19th century engineers, their works and their lives. Taking objective and subjective approaches to the artistic expression of Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway, the chapter illuminates the painting elements, its focus and Turner’s intention to depict the new technology’s power to overcome nature.

5. Inigo Thomas. “The Chase”. Rev. of Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway, Art. Joseph Mallord William Turner. London Review of Books. 12 Oct. 2016.

In both sides, this article reviews expert comments on Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway, industrial society, praising the work’s engineering revolution in action under the background of the coming industrial society.

6. Karl Marx. “Manifesto of the Communist Party”. Marx/Engels Selected Works, Vol. One. Progress Publishers. Moscow. 1969. pp. 98-137. Print.

7. Kathleen Duffy. “J M W Turner - 'Rain Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway'”. WebMD. n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

In his blog, the author analyzes Turner’s paints from the perspective of artistic style. He holds it that the work is a result of the Catholic Reformation.

想要了解更多英国留学资讯或者需要paper代写,请关注51Due英国论文代写平台,51Due是一家专业的论文代写机构,专业辅导海外留学生的英文论文写作,主要业务有论文代写assignment代写、paper代写。在这里,51Due致力于为留学生朋友提供高效优质的留学教育辅导服务,为广大留学生提升写作水平,帮助他们达成学业目标。如果您有paper代写需求,可以咨询我们的客服QQ800020041

51Due网站原创范文除特殊说明外一切图文著作权归51Due所有;未经51Due官方授权谢绝任何用途转载或刊发于媒体。如发生侵犯著作权现象,51Due保留一切法律追诉权。

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站