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英国Paper代写:Certain performance enhancing drugs should be legalized in sports

2019-01-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Certain performance enhancing drugs should be legalized in sports,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了兴奋剂在体育运动中的合法性。在以往的体育比赛中,有出现过选手使用兴奋剂的情况,这被认为是不允许的。随着科技的发展,PEDs更加安全了。有人也提出,允许使用PEDs可以防止其非法贸易,公平竞争,并保障运动员的安全。并且随着PEDs合法化,运动员吸毒的问题将会减少。

drugs,兴奋剂的合法性,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

People use cars and computers to make their work more efficient. People send their children to prestigious schools and to extracurricular activities to improve their cognitive and practical skills. People always find ways to improve themselves. By this definition, the use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) in the modern Olympics has been recorded was first appeared on the third Olympiad (A Brief History of Anti-Doping). Performance enhancing drugs are substances that are taken to enhance performance, especially athletics. A substance is considered PEDs if it increases an athlete’s strength, power, speed, and endurance. Moreover, substances that change behavior, arousal level, and extent of pain should also be regarded as PEDs. Thomas Hicks, an Olympic long distance runner, injected strychnine, a type of PEDs, during one of his races and he won the marathon. He is the reason for the first official ban on stimulating substances by a sporting organisation, introduced by the International Amateur Athletic Federation in 1928 (A Brief History of Anti-Doping). Fortunately, it is now 2016, and PEDs are safer along with the improvements of technologies and knowledges. In fact, allowing PEDs can prevent its illegal trade, level of the playing field, and keep athletes safe. Therefore, performance enhancing drugs should be legalized for all sports.

With legalizing PEDs there will be less issues with athletes and other amateurs taking drugs. Smuggling of the drugs are going to cause far more harm to people because they will be receiving the drugs illegally and may be used incorrectly or the wrong substance. Though prohibition decreased consumption, the consequences turned out to be the creation of black markets which supply the continuing demand, just as the proof in the Greenland study of alcohol rationing(NCBI). Black markets’ products are unregulated, which means that the quality and the safety is not guaranteed. The ban of alcohol in the United States in 1920 would be a great example. American Mafia, an organized international body of criminals, interpret the economy as a magnificent role. Moonshine, the alcoholic drink illegally produced, caused far more harm to those drinking it than legitimately produced alcohol would cause since the quality of the alcohol was unregulated. The incidence of death from poisoned alcohol rose four times in five years (Steen). Under the same condition, the prohibition of PEDs is going to lead the same problem as the ban of alcohol did. To effectively prevent the tragedy from rehappening, we should legalize performance enhancing drugs.

People are sporty is a result of the genetic lottery which allows them to be ahead of others. Genetic tests are capable to identify those with the greatest potential. People who happens to have ACE gene is more likely to be better at long distance events. People who happens to have another pair of gene is more likely to be better at short distance events. For instants, black Africans acquire better score at short distance events as a result of their gene helps them to develop superior muscle and bone structure which perform better at short distance event. Sports are the division of the genetic potential (Foddy). Another example that is typical is a skier Eero Maentyranta, coming from Finland. He won three gold medalist one year and the researchers found he had a genetic mutation that meant that he naturally had 40–50% more red blood cells than average. People would argue it is not fair, it is only this guy happened to have better set of sport system.

The ability to deliver oxygen to muscles is a critical factor to decide whether one can play well in sports. As oxygen is carried by red blood cells, so that the quantity of the red blood cell decides the quantity the blood can carry to muscles. And it also shows the potential one athlete have in exercise. Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates red blood cell production and is a natural chemical released by brain, which is used to raise the packed cell volume (PCV)—the percentage of the red blood cells inside the blood. EPO is produced to interact with anaemia, haemorrhage, pregnancy, or living at altitude. Recombinant human EPO became popular in the 1970s, the people began to injecting it. In The 1990s, when the test aimed for evaluate the EPO inside human body was invented, inexplicable cardiac arrest happened on several Dutch cyclists in their sleep and caused their death and this is a consequence of injecting high levels of EPO. People began to realize the risk of a much too high PCV, causing the forbidden of EPO doping (A Global Strategy for Prevention and Detection of Blood Doping with Erythropoietin and Related Drugs).

People do not hope to witness the death on an Olympics, even when the death is before, during, or after competition. It is a competition about health and fitness. We should not limit ourselves in testing for drugs, rather than that, health and fitness is the central of competition. The test for EPO is not applicable today to monitor PCV. The number in the cycling world is 0.5, people whose number above which number would not be permitted to anticipate in the competition, no matter they gain such levels of PCV by training, taking drugs or natural mutation. But id someone was born with a PCV of 0.6 and is allowed to compete, considering the equality and fairness for every competitor, the standard pf PCV should be rise up to 0.6. The main issue at this point is that what is the best level of hormone people should have. Being benefit to everyone, whether the hormone is natural or artificial is then not really a question.

Taking safety more seriously is what people should focus on. Thus people should allow taking drugs that are safe while continuing banning and keep an eye on drugs that are unsafe. Rising EPO up to a safe level is not a problem, which would help athletes to reduce the natural born inequality. But there also exist some hormone that would cause negative affection in their body. For example, the use of anabolic steroids. People should focus on detecting these because they are harmful instead of the reason that they enhance performance.

For many, sport is not really considered safe if they do not take drugs. In the contrary, taking drugs not only do not harm the competitors, but even protect our athletes. Taking drugs allow athletes to perform with rigorous and regular evaluation of their health and fitness. What’s more, as the current incentive is focused on developing undetectable drugs, which puts little concern on the aspect of safety. But if drugs aimed on safe performance enhancement were permitted, safe drugs would be developed with a fast speed. Drugs would become safer.

There are many models that people regard as, but I personally consider they are the old model of spirit of sports, they including fair play and honesty, ethics, excellence in performance, character and education, teamwork, dedication and commitment, health, respect for rules and laws, respect for self and other participants, fun and joy, courage, community and solidarity. But if we consider the idea of hard work included, it seems that taking drugs leads to wining with less effort, which violates this model of spirit of sports. According to the speech of Thomas Murray, PhD, President of the Hastings Center, he made the declaration that he was fully aware of the spirit of sport is to be embodied not only limited in the Olympic Games, every athlete who was working hard to play his own type of competition was actually embodying the spirit of sport. To show the glory of sport was showing people’s natural talents, along with which people compensated their shorts by training efforts. Using drugs could certainly do that for human beings, but the meaning for that could be barely felt. (ProCon.org).

Numerous people oppose the use of PEDs because of this model of spirit of sports, but why does this really matter so much? Within the range of legal, will free drugs still be against the spirit? Is such permissive rule always the future for sport? Human sport should be never compared with sports involving other animals—horse or dog racing. The goals are different, as a horse or dog race finds the fastest horse. They are lined up and flogged. Wining is the best combination of biology, training, and rider. Basically, the race is out of the aim of a test of biological potential, which is the old vision of sports: looking for the strongest, fastest, or most skilled man.

While training makes the potential showing off, drugs improve the potential. But this is not the only view of sports. Humans have their own thoughts which would drive them to convey their next movements. There are choices and judgements to make. There are ways to training and we should choose the best way that fits us. Courage, determination, and wisdom are displayed in all those behaviors. We are the engines of ourselves. And that is why competitors exercise when they choose diet, training, or take drugs. We can decide the sort of competitors to be through any means that we consider to be safe. Human sports differ from animal sports in its creativity. Far from being against the spirit of sport, taking safe drugs enhance the spirit of humanity—the capacity to larger our potential on the basis of reason and judgment.

The result turned out to be the winner is not born genetically strongest. Sports would be less of a genetic lottery, and at the same time, sports will still remain a test of natural physical talent. The winner is more likely to be with a combination of the genetic potential, training, psychology, and judgment. Olympic performance is showing the potential of human beings, their choice and creativity instead of an expensive horse race.

As far as we can tell the truth, our appreciation towards sports at the elite level is tightly connected to the competition, but no tighter than people’s desire to watch an extraordinary performance. The marathon, which people today are quite familiar with and frequently participant, have begun to appear on the first modern Olympics in 1896, it is also the inspiration of many modern athletic competitions. The inspiration, however, turned out to be the pursuing of superhuman behavior.

The usage and definition of PEDs, which turn ou to be a kind of creativity, is within the range of the rules of the sports. People do not solely ride the motorcycle to winning the Tour de France and there are plenty of solutions to save that. Motorbikes are good, but it changed the rules of the bicycle race.

It is bot wise to think allowing cyclists to take EPO would turn the Tour de France into some kind of drug race. After being trained in different as well as creative ways, athletes still compete for same reason in the same place. The skill of riding a bike will always be there.

Far from bringing negatives, allowing PEDs can prevent its illegal trade, level the playing field, and keep athletes safe. There is a brighter future for the legalization of performance enhancing drugs. Performance enhancement is not out of the range of the spirit of sport. Human beings are always looking for better choices. Athletes should have a choice of having a fairer and safer sport competition.

Works Cited

"A Brief History of Anti-Doping." World Anti-Doping Agency. World Anti-Doping Agency,

14 Nov. 2013. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.

<https://www.wada-ama.org/en/a-brief-history-of-anti-doping>.

"A Global Strategy for Prevention and Detection of Blood Doping with Erythropoietin and

Related Drugs." Journal of Hematology 85.6 (2000): 561-63. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

<http://www.haematologica.org/content/haematol/85/6/561.full.pdf?ijkey=0c228b56a69de232e5f83fc8df9e2981b1e8f669&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha>.

Catlin, Don H. "Performance-Enhancing Drugs, Fair Competition, and Olympic Sport."

JAMA Network. The Journal of American Medical Association, 17 July 1996. Web.

28 Jan. 2016. <http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=405564>

Foddy, Bennett. "Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport." --

Savulescu Et Al. 38 (6): 666. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2004. Web. 21 Feb.

2016. <http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/38/6/666.full#ref-1>.

ProCon.org. "Thomas H. Murray, PhD" ProCon.org. 22 Oct. 2008. Web. 25 Feb. 2016.

<http://sportsanddrugs.procon.org/view.source.php?sourceID=7111>.

ProCon.org. "Does the Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs Violate the "Spirit of Sport"?"

ProCon.org. 17 Nov. 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.

<http://sportsanddrugs.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=001243>.

Steen, David. "Why Anabolic Steroids Should Be Legalized." Anabolic Steroids.

ANABOLIC-STEROIDS.INFO, 3 Nov. 2014. Web. 12 Dec. 2015.

<http://anabolic-steroids.info/why-anabolic-steroids-should-be-legalized/>.

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