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Paper代写:Child Abuse

2018-12-06 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Child Abuse讨论了虐待儿童的问题。在现代社会,虐待儿童已经成为一种常见的现象,这对儿童的成长非常不利。尽管许多人尽最大努力呼吁禁止虐待儿童,但这一社会现象到目前为止还没有根本改变。事实上,没有人能否认,虐待儿童在全世界仍然是一个严重的社会现象。大量数据表明,虐待儿童的现象十分严重。虐待儿童是一种非常复杂的现象,它具有显著的多层面性。因此,对这一复杂现象的概念化也是多方面的。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Child Abuse,虐待儿童,paper代写,代写,essay代写

1. Introduction

Child abuse refers to all kinds of extreme violence that hurt children, cripples children or kills children. Studies show that a significant number of children are sometimes threatened and attacked by their parents using force. Generally speaking, child abuse usually has different styles. According to Sedlak, et al., “abuse includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Neglect includes physical neglect, emotional neglect, and educational neglect (875).” In fact, no matter what kind of child abuse has its specific causes to children, at the same time, all kinds of child abuses can not avoid bring many negative effects to children. As a matter of fact, no one can deny the fact that children abuse may lead to both physical and psychological adverse effects on children’s later lives. These negative effects mainly include the following aspects: neural development, attachment, emotion regulation, self concept and social adaptation. So many children are abused by their parents or relates, and it makes them suffer great pains in their whole lives. However, it seems that there is no sign of relaxation in the phenomenon of children abuse. Instead, an increasing number of children are suffering abused by others in the modern world. Actually, children abuse is worth paying more attention to and it is a thought-provoking social issue. In this paper, I will focus on discussing the phenomenon, causes and adverse effects of child abuse.

2. The phenomenon of children abuse in the modern world.

In the modern world, children abuse has been a common phenomenon which can bring great disadvantages to children. An increasing number of children are experiencing different styles of maltreatment during their growth experiences. Although a large number of individuals try their best to call for a ban on child abuse, the social phenomenon has not been fundamentally changed so far. As a matter of fact, no one can deny the fact that children abuse is still a serious social phenomenon throughout the world. A great amount of data show that the phenomenon of children abuse is significantly serious. According to Sedlak, et al., from 2005 to 2006, more than 1.25 million children have already experienced maltreatment. Among them, about 553,300 children were abused (875). And 771,700 children were neglected. Data show that, the majority of children were abused in physical, and the number was 323,000. About a quarter of them had the experience of sexual abuse, it was about 135,500 children. In addition, over a quarter of them have the experience of emotional abuse, the estimated number is 148,500. Nearly half of the neglected children have the experience of educational neglect, the number is 148,500. Over a third of them were physically neglected, the number is 295,300. A quarter of them were emotionally neglected, the number is 193,300(875).

3. The major causes of child abuse

Generally speaking, there are a number of reasons which can explain the occurrence of child abuse.  Child abuse is a very complex phenomenon and it is significantly multifaceted. Hence, the conceptualizations about the complex phenomenon is also multifaceted.

3.1 Child abuse is connected with the life experiences of parents. Actually, the parental history and the parents’ own experience during childhood can lead to child abuse. As we all know, growth experience always brings an obvious life-long effect on a person’s behaviors. On the one hand, parents who have bad experiences in their childhoods are more likely to abuse their children. Some parents have the experience of being abused in their childhoods. These groups of parents are not able to feel love and express love to their children. Even some of them abuse their children motivated entirely by the desire for revenge. To a certain extent, they all have different degrees of mental illness. In fact, it is just the mental illness that leads them to abuse children. On the other hand, parents who have bad experience in their childhoods fail to carry out effective communication with their children. These groups of parents always don’t have enough parental skills and they tend to fail to respond to their children’s needs in early phases of interaction with their children. As a result, it will also lead to children abuse. As a matter of fact, no one can deny the fact that family and interaction contexts have great effects on parents’ behaviors and child abuse. Hence, interactions between the parents and the child is remarkably important and it is necessary to pay more attention to the way parent-children interactions.

3.2 Family structures and dynamics including marital relation, family organization may lead to child abuse. Data show, a large number of parents have the tendency to abuse children, because they live in a remarkably discordant family. As we all know, a bad marriage is often without love and warmth. Thus, this kind of family is more prone to conflict. In the long run, they may be depressed. Parents’ depression may increase the risk of their losing control, and physically injuring a child (Kinard 413). A significant number of parents are easily affected by negative emotions including unhappiness, sadness and depression. These groups of parents tend to abuse their children because negative emotions always make them lose control. To a certain extent, these groups of parents abuse children because they usually lack of the ability to control over their own emotions. Their sadistic behaviors are often the result of impulse. Thus, it is necessary to use of standard mental health interventions so as to prevent child abuse.

3.3 The stress of daily life may cause the behavior of child abuse. Generally speaking, life stress includes several factors such as poverty, unemployment and work adversities, etc.. The social environment such as poverty may be one of the major factors which lead to child abuse. “In United States, poverty and family structure explained the largest proportion of the variance while individual pathology, including a childhood history of abuse, explained the least (Calheiros 14)”. In the modern world, people are bearing more and more pressure in many aspects. The majority of parents have to bear the responsibility to support families and they always feel significantly exhausted. In the face of heavy burden, a lot of parents addict themselves in to drugs and alcohol. As a matter of fact, it is really a bad phenomenon. A significant number of parents clarify that they abuse their children because drunk or drug seizures. Obviously, these groups of parents refuse to admit that they are hurting their children deliberately. In fact, no matter whether they shirk or not, the only fact is that they all make irreparable harm to their children.

3.4 Moreover, parents’ level of education is also a factor that leads to child abuse. Related data show people who have higher socioeconomic status and social position will be able to get resources that ensure them to better interact with their children, tend to have little inclination to abuse children.

4. Adverse consequences of child abuse

Child abuse has a profound negative impact on both the physical and mental aspects of childhood and adulthood. Maltreatment not only hurts the children's body, but even causes disability and death in children. It also causes all kinds of psychological and behavioral problems and psychosomatic diseases. Adults are also prone to physical and psychological problems, such as ischemic heart disease, post traumatic stress disorder, stroke, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, fracture and hepatitis, cancer, depression and anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial behavior or personality disorders. In recent years, it has been found that maltreatment can cause irreparable harm in aspects of behavior, socialization, cognition and emotion of children, and these effects can be sustained into adulthood.

4.1 The impact of child abuse on behavior. Behavioral pathways are the most studied in all the approaches. It includes a large number of acts of damaging health, such as substance abuse, eating disorders, suicide, high risk sexual behaviors, smoking and sleep disorders, etc..

4.1.1 Substance abuse. It is said that children who have four or more than four childhood bad experiences are more likely to be addicted to alcohol, drug addiction and drug injection. Gay and bisexual men who have had a history of sexual abuse are more likely to use psychotropic drugs. Women who have a history of sexual abuse tend to suffer from drug addiction and alcohol abuse (Bernstein et al. 1132). The reason is that they try to deal with academic failure and poor peer relationship, to change their inner experience and reduce mental pain by substance abuse alcohol or drug use. Smoking is also common among children with childhood abuse history.

4.1.2 Obesity and eating disorders. Overweight is a significantly common issue among adults with a history of childhood abuse.

4.1.3 Suicide. Suicide attempts and suicidal thoughts are common in adults who have had a history of abuse. People who have four or more types of family problems tend to have stronger suicide attempts. Sexual abuse history is also related to kill ideas and actions. The same is true of psychiatric patients with history of sexual abuse or history of physical abuse.

4.1.4 High risk sexual behaviors. Risky sexual behaviors are fairly harmful behaviors in the study of abuse, and are not influenced by gender and sexual orientation. Sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual activity (Fergusson et al. 529). Women who have sexual abuse history tend to be much more voluntary to conduct sexual activity for the first time. There are more teenage pregnancy, abortion, multiple sex partners, unprotected sex and suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. The phenomenon is more obvious especially in women with a history of more serious abuse. People who have four or more than four family problems tend to have sexual partners who have at least one sexually transmitted disease.

4.1.5 Sleep disorder. Although sleep itself is not a strict sense of behavior, it has the ingredients of behavior. Adults with childhood abuse often have difficulty falling asleep and continuing nightmares. Proper sleep is necessary for health and the lack of adequate sleep can affect health in a variety of ways. The lack of sleep for a long time will reduce immunity and lead to infections and diseases. At the same time, it is also prone to a variety of injury accidents. Difficulty in falling asleep also indicates serious depression.

4.2 Impact of child abuse on social competence. As we all know, good social relations and the ability to get along with others are essential to an individual's health. The ability to establish and maintain positive and interactive social relationships can also be affected by all forms of abuse. Adults with a history of abuse have a poor relationship with others (Lopez 183). For example, they tend to fail in marriage, and choose to be segregated from others. Adults who were neglected in childhood were more anxious, paranoid and hostile. The mutual trust between people can also affect the life span. Trust refers to a person believe that others are loyal, kind, and honest. People with higher interpersonal relationships are healthier and longer than those who lack trust. High level of trust is related to self health and life satisfaction. In addition to the negative beliefs discussed above, beliefs about health perception are also related to individual health. Health perception refers to the condition in which an individual feels himself in a healthy state. Cruelty can affect one's health perception. People who have the history of sexual abuse are generally less satisfied with their health. More women who suffer from sexual harm think they are in poorer health. As a matter of fact, health perception may be a potential predictor of disease and death.

4.3 Emotional impact of child abuse. Over the past 20 years, a great deal of literature has shown that negative emotions are potentially dangerous to life. Common depression after being abused has a significant effect on people’s health. In general, depression is considered as the most common mental disorder after maltreatment. Adults with childhood sexual abuse are more likely to suffer from major depression. Actually, the majority of sexual abusers suffer from depressive symptoms. They include sleep disorders, chronic fatigue, disappointment and frequent crying, most of which are untreated. Compared with other depressed patients, depressive symptoms are the most severe in patients who have childhood sexual abuse experience. Child abuse itself can make the abused persons suffer from depression. Women with a history of sexual abuse are several times as likely to develop depression as those with history of asexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse has an independent effect on depression, and it is more than other childhood adverse events. Depression has been shown to have an immunosuppressive effect that affects the immune system at the level of blood leukocytes, especially those patients with severe depressive disorder. Depression also affects people’s ability to take part in activities so as to promote healthy behaviors. Studies have shown that depression is closely related to lack of physical activities, having breakfast, sleeping regularities, as well as the use of seat belts. In addition, depression is related to smoking, eating less fruit and failing to use sunscreen. And women with major depression also have an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Patients with depression are prone to relapse and heart disease.

5. Conclusion

Child abuse has been a social issue throughout the world for decades of years. More and more children have the experience of maltreatment in their childhoods. In general, there are a lot of causes that can explain the phenomenon of child abuse. Child abuse is connected with the life experiences of parents. Family structure and dynamics including marital relation, family organization may lead to child abuse. The stress of daily life may cause the behavior of child abuse. Moreover, parents’ level of education is also a factor that leads to child abuse. Meanwhile, it is not rational to ignore the bad effects of child abuse. It generally embodies in four aspects, such as the impact of child abuse on behavior, impact of child abuse on social competence, emotional impact of child abuse. Every child should be regarded of equal worth although they have individual differences and uniqueness. Every child should have the right to enjoy equal social, economic, civil and political treatments in order to ensure them to fully realize their inherent potential and share equally in life (Veronica 43). It is obvious that these values are grounded in the humanistic philosophy of any nation's declaration of independence. As a matter of fact, child abuse is a remarkably vital issue in the modern world. Therefore, it is necessary to attach great importance to care for children and forbid child abuse.

References

Bernstein, David P, et al. "Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. " American Journal of Psychiatry 151.8(1994):1132.

Calheiros, Maria Manuela. "Parents' beliefs on the causes of child maltreatment." International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy 13.1(2013):1-14.

Fergusson, D. M., L. J. Horwood, and L. J. Woodward. "The stability of child abuse reports: a longitudinal study of the reporting behaviour of young adults. " Psychological Medicine 30.3(2000):529-44.

Kinard, E. "Child Abuse and Depression: Cause or Consequence?." Child Welfare 61.7(1982):403-413.

Lopez, M. A., and R. W. Heffer. "Self-concept and social competence of university student victims of childhood physical abuse. " Child Abuse & Neglect 22.3(1998):183-95.

Sedlak, et al. “Fourth national incidence study of child abuse and neglect (NIS–4).” International Journal of Public Health 58.6(2013):875.

Veronica Amdi. "The cause of child abuse and neglect and their effects on the development of children in Samaru Zaria, Nigeria." Early Child Development & Care 58.1(1990):31-43.

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