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英国paper代写-The electoral college system in the United States

2018-11-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The electoral college system in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的选举团制度。美国制宪者在经过深思和辩论后,从四种选举方式中选择了选举团制度。经过1800年的总统选举,政党对选举的操纵促成了新制度的形成。如今,尽管选举团制与纯粹民主制有所悖逆,引得反对者议论纷纷。但选举团制度的宪政精神在于自由民主,保障少数人权利的共和主义而非单纯民主,因此其更符合美国的联邦体制和立国精神。

electoral college system,美国选举团制度,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

One of the thorniest questions in the constituent assembly is how to elect a President. But there was no "President," and the Virginia and New Jersey plans proposed at the beginning of the meeting and the subsequent discussions and resolutions used only the usual language of "administrator," until morris finally drafted the constitution, using the title of President to refer to the head of the new government. There are at least four ways of electing an administrator in a constituent assembly: election by congress, election by state governors, direct election by the people of the country, and election by the electoral college.

The method of election by state governors was unanimously rejected by the delegates at the meeting on 9 June; The direct election by the people was initially met with more opposition. Elections are then focused on congressional and electoral elections. At the beginning of the session, there was more support for the way the parliamentary elections were conducted. The constitutional representative, Mr. Sherman, was very representative, "elected by the national assembly, and the executive is absolutely dependent on the parliament, because what the executive has to do is to enforce the will of the parliament," he added. But the issue was revived on July 17th to discuss the impeachment and recall of magistrates by parliament. Morris, Wilson, Madison, etc., believed that the executive must be separated from the parliament.

Therefore, the administrator should be freed from dependence on the parliament and opposed to being elected by the parliament. After repeated explanations and debates by Madison and others, the delegates finally accepted their opinion: first, it was extremely difficult for the people to directly elect the President, because the country was so vast, the northern states were quite different from the southern states, the people were ignorant of the situation, vulnerable to the manipulation of a few conspirators and led astray. Second, the legislative, executive and judicial powers should not only be separated, but should be independent from each other. The President should not be controlled by the congress, and should not be elected by the congress.

Finally, compromise at the constitutional convention, adopt the project of the electoral college, as to how voters generate, due to the delegates' hard to agree, put this problem aside temporarily, left to state legislatures to decide on their own.

The electoral college was formally established in the United States. This constitutes the provisions of article 2, paragraph 1, of the constitution of 1787 concerning the method of presidential election. In his review of the federal constitution, Hamilton praised the electoral college's approach, saying that "such appointments, if not perfected, are at least excellent". He also analysed several advantages of the electoral college: first, the will of the people works; Secondly, by electing the electoral college, the people can give the electoral college the insight and vision necessary to carry out such a complex review; Third, reduce as much as possible the very violent movement that causes unrest and disorder, and is less likely to cause social unrest; Fourthly, the electoral college system can oppose conspiracies, intrigues and corruption. Fifth, the President may be able to serve without relying on anyone other than the people themselves.

The electoral college is a system in which states elect a certain number of members to form the electoral college, equal to the total number of members of each state in both houses of congress. The electors of the state electoral college gather in state capitals at the same time to vote, then seal their votes and send them to the senate, where the President counts the votes in front of both houses. The candidate with the most votes and an absolute majority is elected President, and the second most votes is vice President. When all the candidates have less than an absolute majority, or two equal votes, the house of representatives selects one person from the five with the most votes to be President, and the other person from the five with the most votes to be vice President.

In practice, the electoral college System also forms such a regulation. Except for the special distribution of electoral votes in Maine and Nebraska, the other 48 states and Washington, d.c., all implement the winner-take-all System, that is, all the electoral votes of the state are given to presidential candidates who obtain a relatively majority of popular votes in the state. This system of "winner-take-all" was not established in the first place. It was formed by the presidential election of 1800. In this election, political parties, an important part of American politics, officially appeared, and it was the activities of political parties that led to the creation of the winner-take-all system.

In the early days of the founding of the United States, both Washington and Jefferson were contending with the opposition. However, due to their different political views, Hamilton, Adams and other people became hostile to Jefferson. Jefferson resigned as secretary of state in 1792 and set out to form the republican party. In the presidential election of 1800, Jefferson and his partner burr won and Adams lost. However, the constitution did not stipulate that the electoral college should vote for the President and vice President separately. Instead, the presidential electors generally cast two votes, resulting in the same number of votes for Jefferson and burr. Later, in the house of representatives, after several rounds of election, Jefferson was not elected. Finally, Hamilton persuaded the federalist party to support Jefferson before he finally elected President.

The presidential election of 1800 led directly to the addition of the 12th amendment to the constitution to the presidential election system. The amendment changed each voter's vote from two to one for the President and one for the vice President. At the same time, the amendment officially recognized the legal status of political parties in the absence of the explicit wording "party". Since then, presidential and vice presidential candidates have begun to campaign together under party organizations. Political parties launch their own presidential candidates across the country and their own electoral college in each state. After 1824, the electors of the grand electoral college were all elected by the popular vote of the people of the whole state. Before the popular vote, people knew which electors would vote for which presidential candidate. When you vote for a presidential candidate, you vote for the corresponding group of electors. The winning group voted for the President of the state on a day in December, generally choosing their party's presidential candidate. New York, for example, has 33 electoral votes. If 60 percent of the state's voters support a democratic candidate, the democratic electoral college gains all of the state's electoral votes. After such a step, it looks as if all the people in the state voted for the same presidential candidate. This change naturally leads to another important change, which is the "winner take all" of presidential candidates in the states. It is worth noting that the presidential electors in each state generally have to promise to support the presidential candidate of a certain party before they are elected. However, in actual voting, there are still a few "disloyal electors".

The winner-take-all system is actually based on a comparative majority system of state elections. Due to a political party organization run for universal suffrage and states the electoral college, so even if people start to vote is more dispersed, but a relative majority only one party can win all the state's electoral votes, so big electoral college in state capitals formally elect the President, the winning candidate usually more than half of the support, it also effectively solves the presidential election votes scattered distribution problem. In previous presidential campaigns, states with larger populations have become highly competitive districts with more house members and more electoral votes. Similarly, thanks to the winner-take-all system, small states have at least three electoral votes, and presidential candidates cannot afford to ignore them. The establishment of the grand electoral college makes the geographical distribution of the support of the elected President more balanced to compensate for the geographical imbalance caused by the imbalance of population density and distribution, which is very important for the vast and widely divergent federal countries.

But the electoral college system also raises questions about democracy. According to the constitution, the senate has two members per state, and the house of representatives is determined by proportion of the population. For example, California has 54 votes, New York has 33 and Texas has 32. However, small states such as Alaska, Delaware and Montana have only 3 votes. State electoral votes also represent a larger percentage of the electorate. In Alaska, for example, each electoral vote represents 112,000 people, compared with 404,000 in New York state. Thus the "weight" of each vote varies greatly. At the same time, it may lead to a mismatch between the electorate and the electoral college, that is, candidates with high national popular support are elected instead of elected President. In 1876, for example, the republican heist was elected President with more than 247,000 fewer first-past-the-post votes than the democrat dierton. In the 2000 general election, in the national head ticket, democratic presidential candidate al gore republican bush more than in 500000, but due to the bush won in Florida gore hundreds of tickets to the man's head, based on the principles of the winner take all, Mr Bush had won the state's total 25 electoral votes, finally to a 271-266 victory over al gore was elected President.

In the 2000 us election, the dispute over the counting of votes in Florida led to a wide range of opinions at home and abroad. There are those who claim that the American electoral system is full of malpractices and hidden loopholes, those who claim that the election is unfair and fails to reflect public opinion, and those who even take advantage of the opportunity to observe the American democratic system and make a mockery of the American democratic system. At the same time, there are calls in the United States for reform or abolition of the electoral college system. The day after the election, senator Hillary r.linton spearheaded a call for the abolition of the obsolescence system, arguing that it was the legacy of outdated federalists and no longer suited to the needs of modern democratic politics.

Opposition to the electoral college is widespread, even fierce. In addition to Mrs Clinton's arguments, opponents say the electoral college has had a number of disadvantages. It violates the principle of one person, one vote, and each vote is equal. The question of voter disloyalty may go against the will of the electorate; When no one wins an outright majority, the house of representatives selects the President by one vote per state, ignoring public opinion and creating problems of backroom dealing, such as the elections of 1824 and 1876. It strengthens the two-party system and actually limits the voters' choice; It damaged America's image of democracy and led to an electoral crisis. The electoral college system is aimed at the problem in the 18th century, which is not adapted to the needs of the 21st century. And so on.

In contrast, the electoral college has many defenders. According to the New York times of November 13, 2000, the main argument of the supporters is that the electoral college elections are not undemocratic, but national, with the states as the counting units. The electoral college system could better serve the interests of small states and remote areas and consolidate the union; Easy vote counting allows early election results. Facilitate review of disputed areas when candidate votes are close. They argue that it is necessary to consider carefully whether the changes will lead only to a worse electoral system.

In fact, the debate did not take place until the election of 2000. In the history of the United States, there have been calls for the abolition of the "electors" system and the adoption of a national recount system. In a report on federal election reform, Randy Pierce says that by December 2000, according to congressional researchers, there were 1, 028 bills that proposed changes to the electoral college, almost a tenth of the proposed changes. At the end of the second world war, two constitutional amendments to the electoral college were voted on because of opposition from the other house of parliament. In 200 years, it's almost five times a year, but why didn't it pass? If the sages who choose the electoral college system of natural factors to consider, when most of the American people scattered in remote villages, less contact with each other, there is no modern developed transport and the media tools, makes the presidential elections will probably only choosing familiar people or driven by people with ulterior motives, people directly involved in the democracy could be inconvenient or inappropriate. So why hasn't it been possible to repeal or amend more than 1,000 later proposals?

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