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Paper代写:The development of community banking in the United States

2018-10-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- The development of community banking in the United States讨论了美国社区银行的发展。在美国,社区银行大多是指在一定地区的社区范围内,按照市场化原则自主设立、独立运营、主要服务于中小企业和个人客户的中小银行。在美国银行业发展进程中,以社区银行为代表的中小银行一直保持着强劲的发展势头。由于美国一直实行单一银行体制,联邦和州分享发放银行执照的权利,不允许银行跨州设立分行。所以这种体制为美国中小商业银行的快速发展提供了广阔的空间,进而成为美国银行数量众多的主要动因之一。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

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Small and medium-sized Banks are often referred to as "grassroots Banks" and in the United States they are often referred to as "community Banks" or independent Banks. Generally speaking, community Banks mainly refer to the small and medium-sized Banks that are set up and operated independently according to the market principles within the community scope of a certain area and mainly serve small and medium-sized enterprises and individual customers. The "community" here is not a strictly defined geographical concept. It can refer to a state, a city or a county, or to the residential areas of urban or rural residents. Therefore, community bank is not a bank located in a city community as we simply understand it, but a local small and medium sized commercial bank with small assets, mainly serving small and medium enterprises in the region and residents' families.

In fact, community banking is a dynamic concept, and people may have different metrics at different times. Currently, internationally accepted standards for measuring the size of Banks are based on the size of assets. Before 1999, Banks with assets of more than $300 million could be classified as big Banks, while those with assets of less than or equal to $300 million could be classified as small and medium Banks. Since 1999, these measures have changed and standards for measuring the size of Banks have improved. Banks with assets of less than or equal to $1 billion are usually classified as small and medium-sized Banks, while those with assets of more than $1 billion are called big Banks. In the United States, community Banks typically have assets of less than $10 million to $1 billion, with a very small number reaching $1 billion. Although in practice, people often classify Banks with assets of less than $1 billion as community Banks, Robert DeYoung et al. argue that community Banks should have the following main characteristics: firstly, those with assets of less than $1 billion should be regarded as community Banks. Second, at least half of all deposits come from branches within a single region. Third, domestic ownership. Fourth, provide traditional financial services including credit portfolios, trading services and underwriting deposits. Fifth, it is an independent bank, or the only bank in a bank holding company, or a wholly-owned subsidiary of a bank holding company consisting entirely of community Banks.

In the process of American banking development, small and medium-sized Banks, represented by community Banks, have maintained a strong momentum of development. For more than 150 years, from 1837 to 1994, the United States operated a single banking system, in which federal and state authorities Shared the right to grant banking licences and did not allow Banks to establish branches across state lines. This system provides broad space for the rapid development of small and medium-sized commercial Banks in the United States, and thus becomes one of the main reasons for the large number of American Banks. To encourage the development of the national bank, the federal government enacted the national bank act of 1863, with a minimum capital amount of only $250,000, and prohibited both the state bank and the national bank from establishing branches across the state. Such protective measures greatly promoted the development and growth of small and medium-sized commercial Banks. In order to overcome the glass - steger, act by big Banks for small and medium-sized commercial Banks after the implementation of mergers and acquisitions of small and medium-sized Banks resulted from the pressure surge problem, and the United States congress in 1960 passed the bank mergers act, the law regulation: the relevant authorities in the approved bank mergers, want to consider whether convenience and meet the needs of the local society, if the merger cause monopoly or greatly reduced competition or tend to lead to monopoly, shall not be approved. After the enactment of the 1994 racker-neal interstate banking and branch efficiency act and the 1999 financial services modernization act, the us was expected to see a wave of large-scale mergers and branches involving small and medium-sized Banks. In 1995, there were 9,942 commercial Banks in the United States, 1,590 savings Banks and 13,717 cooperative Banks. By 2000, there were 8,315 commercial Banks and 1,590 savings Banks. By the end of 2002, there were 8,932 community Banks and 39,094 branches. At the end of 2007, 42 percent of U.S. Banks had less than $100 million in assets. Fifty-one percent of Banks have between $100 million and $1 billion in assets. Only 7% of Banks have more than $1 billion in assets.

Although the global financial crisis is still spreading and the number of community Banks in the United States has decreased, community Banks still account for as much as 94 percent of the total number of Banks in the United States, basically maintaining the proportion of community Banks in the total number of U.S. Banks since 1983. In addition, community Banks have maintained a stable market share in loans to individual community residents and to farms, despite a decline in their ratio of total U.S. loans as a result of the financial crisis.

First, the operating characteristics of community Banks are very obvious. Firstly, from the perspective of market positioning, the market positioning of community Banks is relatively low, which mainly focuses on the financial service needs of local community residents, small and medium-sized enterprises and neighboring farmers. Over the past 20 years, community Banks have provided 40 percent of all home loans to communities, 35 percent of small business loans, and 70 percent of rural loans. Secondly, from the perspective of capital utilization, community Banks mainly continue to invest the deposits they have absorbed in a certain region, thus greatly promoting the development of local economy. Thirdly, from the process of employees' business treatment, the employees of community Banks are usually very familiar with the customer needs of the local market, and they are also important members who are integrated into the community life. Compared with the business managers of big Banks, the managers and employees of community Banks will have more accurate understanding of their customers' soft information, such as personal characteristics and management ability. Fourth, from the loan approval process, community Banks in the examination and approval of small and medium-sized enterprise customers and home loans, the customer is not only a pile of financial data on behalf of, in fact the community bank credit personnel will also consider these as a neighbor of the borrower's personality characteristics, family history and family composition, the characteristics of daily expenses, and so on personalized soft information, and the big Banks in the examination and approval of these small and medium-sized enterprise loan and personal loan, usually only according to the credit, debt, income and other tough financial whether lending decision, is not willing to "information on difficult borrowers" lending.

Second, community Banks are generally more efficient than large Banks. This is mainly reflected in two aspects: one is that the operation of community Banks is free from relatively complex links and procedures. Because community Banks operate locally, they make credit decisions fairly quickly. Big Banks, by contrast, have to go through the necessary internal approval process, which is naturally longer. Second, the financial operation of community Banks is relatively stable. From the perspective of the change of return on assets, except for the relatively low figure in 2007, the figures in other years show an increasing trend or a small gap. Compared with big Banks, community Banks with assets of less than $100 million have relatively low return on assets. However, community Banks with assets of between $100 million and $1 billion have relatively small return on assets. In a sense, this figure can show that quite a few community Banks are highly competitive. From the perspective of the change of equity capital ratio, except for the relatively low number of various Banks in 2007, the equity capital ratio of various Banks in the United States in other years basically shows an increasing trend year by year, especially the community Banks with assets of $100 million to $1 billion, which has increased from 9.24% in 1999 to 12.20% in 2006. Meanwhile, the equity capital ratio of big Banks with assets above $10 billion was relatively low at first, only rising from less than 8 percent in 1999 to 9.95 percent in 2004, but it was relatively high in 2005 and 2006, reaching 13.07 percent and 13.40 percent, respectively. It should be said that a higher equity capital ratio, while ensuring the sound operation of Banks, also protects the interests of bank customers, which is essential for the healthy development of community Banks.

The development of community banking in the United States has provided many useful references for the development of small and medium-sized Banks in emerging markets. At present, the reform of China's financial system has entered a critical period, and the research on the development of American community Banks will have a positive impact on the development and enrichment of China's small and medium-sized Banks and the improvement of China's banking structure.

The needs of small and medium-sized enterprises directly lead the development process of community Banks. As we all know, the steady and sustained economic growth of a country cannot be achieved without a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. In particular, the role of small and medium-sized enterprises will always be indispensable in stabilizing the economy, creating employment, generating foreign exchange through exports and providing social services. Large Banks, however, are generally disdainful of dealing with the activities of small and medium-sized enterprises. Although governments to encourage big Banks and small and medium-sized enterprises to carry out exchanges and to provide various forms of security, but the big Banks often worry that the enterprise scale is too small, difficult to meet their business needs, and think that the management risk of the small and medium-sized enterprises is higher, the business lack of stability, in this way, small and medium-sized enterprises have to seek suitable financing methods and channels.

Community Banks can meet the capital needs of smes during their development, as they mainly serve smes. As DeYoung et al. said, at least one area of the banking industry still seems to be unaffected by technological development and deregulation, namely the "relational lending" of community Banks to small and medium enterprises. In "relationship lending", the community bank to the borrower's information collection is beyond the relatively transparent data in the financial statements, the scope of the mortgaged property research and other public sources and done through the breadth and depth of bank business relations, community Banks to obtain information can be used to renew the loan, the extension of credit, the signing of the agreement, and set the loan term, etc., thus to meet the demand for money. In addition, the community bank places special emphasis on personal contact with the lender, so the lending efficiency is extremely high and the satisfaction degree of the borrower is greatly improved.

From the development of American community Banks, the development of community Banks is largely related to the supportive policies adopted by the government. Since the first banking law was born in 1837, a number of subsequent laws in the United States have created conditions for the creation and development of community banking. The reason why there are so many community Banks in the United States is not only related to the large demand brought by the extensive development of many small businesses, but also related to the favorable policies adopted by the United States government, such as encouraging competition and prohibiting the establishment of branches across states. In addition, the United States also gives preferential treatment to small and medium-sized financial institutions such as community Banks from the perspective of taxation. It provides that community Banks are exempt from various taxes, establish deposit insurance of credit cooperatives, and do not pay deposit reserve funds. All these measures have played an important role in promoting the rapid development of community Banks.

First, community Banks have a strong ability to engage in relationship lending. Empirical research on "the ability to engage in relationship-based or reputation-based credit or low market lending" suggests that "large financial firms are at a comparative disadvantage when information about individual investment projects is inherently soft information". Due to their ability to process soft information, community Banks are considered to have a comparative advantage in lending to borrowers with opaque information.

Secondly, community Banks have strong ability to obtain large amounts of core deposits. Core deposits mainly refer to the deposits made up of business deposits and short-term deposits. The latest data show that core deposits have accounted for 34% of all deposits for large U.S. Banks, compared with 39% for medium-sized Banks, 44% for large community Banks, 57% for medium community Banks, 65% for small community Banks and 67% for rural Banks. Community Banks with higher core deposit rates are better able to establish solid, long-term relationships with their customers.

Third, community Banks are more capable of interacting with customers. Although the development of the Internet enables many customers to conduct business without entering the bank, the personalized face-to-face service of community Banks enables customers to experience the enthusiasm and warmth while accepting financial services. In addition, the community knowledge possessed by the community bank enables it to participate in the activities of local non-governmental organizations in a convenient and rapid way, such as supporting local public welfare undertakings and providing help to low-income people in the community.

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