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Paper代写:Institutional economics

2018-10-09 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Institutional economics讨论了制度经济学。制度经济学涉及最多的是上帝对人的行为要求,以及对人的行为产生的影响。以制度经济学中对此行为准则的划分来看,现在的宗教大多数应属于非正式制度,少数或者一些在历史上曾为正式制度。制度经济学认为,正式规则、非正式规则和实施特征三者共同界定社会的尤其是经济的激励结构,因而共同决定着经济绩效。正式规则可以在一夜之间改变,从非正式规则只能逐步变化;不同的国家如果正式规则相同而非正式规则和实施环境不同,它们的经济绩效就会不同。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Institutional economics,制度经济学,paper代写,代写,essay代写

Historically, the origins of Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other religions were created to meet some human needs. The idea of equality of all beings propagated by many religions catered to the interests of most of the middle and lower classes in the remote slave and feudal times. Therefore, the rise of this religion was supported by many civilians.

According to maslow's hierarchy of needs, religion initially meets the needs of human survival and security. And in the process of gradual development, religion is constantly rising to new levels, publicizing morality, and propagating creationism, etc., to meet the needs of people at all levels. The reason why people believe in religion is that the satisfaction of believing in religion is greater than the cost.

From an economic point of view, when the benefits of certain actions outweigh the costs of the action, there is an incentive to do so spontaneously, as in religion. And the doctrines of religious propaganda are more likely to produce good benefits by restricting behavior among their followers.

In feudal times, religious communication was often combined with political factors. Historically Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism and Islam today all relied to some extent on the regime to accelerate the dissemination. All of these are because human behavior is rational. When propagating religious thoughts is beneficial to the rule, the ruler will certainly speed up the spread of religion to facilitate the rule.

Institutional economics deals mostly with god's requirements for human behavior and the effects on human behavior. According to the division of this code of conduct in institutional economics, the majority of religions today should be informal institutions, and a few or some have been formal institutions in history.

Douglas C noth in the system, institutional change and economic performance, think: the system is a social rules of the game, more standardized, they are in order to determine the relationship between people and set some restriction. The system constructs the incentive structure for people to exchange in political, social or economic aspects, and the institutional change determines the way of social evolution.

Institution is a series of rules to restrain people's behavior, which inhibits the possible behavior in interpersonal communication, namely the opportunistic behavior. The system and the person's motive, the behavior has the internal connection; The system is a "public good".

Veblen believes that institution is essentially an individual or society's habit of thinking in some relation or aspect. The system is the collective action through the ownership relationship to achieve the control of individual behavior. T.W. schultz believed that institutions were a series of rules governing people's behavior. North, latan, bromley, etc. basically follow the definition of schulz. "Institution is a series of rules, law-abiding procedures and desired moral and ethical standards, which are designed to restrain the individual behavior in pursuit of the welfare or utility maximization of the subject" and include the organization in the concept of institution or use it side by side with the concept of organization. Ke wu-gang and shi manfei: "the system is the rule of human interaction. It has always been possible, opportunistic and erratic individual behaviour that makes people's behaviour more predictable and thereby promotes division of Labour and wealth creation ".

Institutions exist in written form and are enforced by authoritative institutions. Such as government issued documents, sports competition rules and so on. In modern society, the formal system undoubtedly plays an important role.

Formal institutions can be formed, changed or abolished in a short time. Changing the informal system is much more difficult. The official system is based on government coercion. Informal institutions depend largely on the interaction of members of society and their voluntary compliance with certain group habits. Informal systems are difficult to migrate between countries or regions. The formal system has greater fluidity and portability.

The generation of a system is a way of evolution, and the system produced by this way is called internal system. The appearance of external system is rational design, and the system generated by this way is called external system. Informal system and formal system, internal system and external system, these two kinds of classification methods have many duplications in extension, but the standard of classification is different. The former is based on the implementation mechanism of the system, while the latter is based on the generation of the system.

Core system: this kind of system which directly serves the basic goal of the system is called the core system. Marginal system: directly serving the core system, such as providing financial income for the operation of the core system, thus indirectly serving the basic goals.

As a set of rules defining people's choice and regulating people's behavior, the system is generally composed of informal rules, formal rules approved by the society and the implementation features of the two.

Informal rules: values, ethics, social habits and ideologies. Formal rules: the rules and contracts established by legal provisions, judicial precedents and policy regulations, and the hierarchical structure formed by these rules. Implementation regulations: the implementation environment, measures, supervision of violations and costs of violations, and other factors.

Institutional economics holds that formal rules, informal rules and implementation features define the incentive structure of society, especially the economy, and thus jointly determine the economic performance. Formal rules can change overnight, from informal rules only gradually; Different countries will have different economic performance if the formal rules are the same but the informal rules and implementation environment is different.

In human society, religion is an informal system, which restrains people's behavior from the aspects of morality and emphasizes basic norms of human behavior such as equality for all people. In some historical periods and some countries, religion also appeared in the form of formal system, such as medieval Europe and modern islamic countries. The reason why people believe in religion is that under the existing conditions, people who believe in the same religion will adopt the same doctrinal behaviors and achieve win-win results in mutual communication and game, so more people will believe in this religion.

As the number of people who believe in religion increases, the number of believers will gain more benefits. At the same time, the cost of religious beliefs remains unchanged. This is also the reason why most informal institutions are widely spread and passed down in a culture.

Evolutionary institutional change models generally emphasize the importance of social psychology, behavioral motivation and mode of thinking. Institution is the product of history and culture, and it is also a whole with history and culture. Therefore, the understanding of the whole cannot ignore the individual, and the understanding of the individual must also consider the whole.

At present, there are mainly three views on the power of institutional formation. First, institutions are the structure of natural evolution, such as hayek. Second, institutions are the result of artificial design, often by the elite of society. Many people hold or are implicit in their own theoretical analysis; Third, institutions are the combination of natural evolution and human design.

In the long run of history, any religion has many branches, some will become more widely accepted, some will die out. On the one hand, it is different branches of believers representing different interest groups, and some of its teachings are bound to be accompanied by artificial designs that cater to their own needs. In this paper, the choice of this system is not only artificial design but also accompanied by the game of interest groups, or a social choice. As Engels thought, the direction of human society is the resultant direction of human practice, so is the change and choice of institution. It is precisely because of the involvement of interest groups that religion can often become formal in history.

From the perspective of game theory, the formation of institutions is often used to regulate the relationship between people, so that all parties can rationally choose the results achieved by their own actions, and analyze the decision-making and balance when the decision-making subjects and their behaviors interact.

The religious doctrines in the case of artificial design are beneficial to the solution of both sides of the game in the formal equilibrium. People who are also religious will get a lot of benefits that they didn't have before when they followed the teachings. With the development of society, the environment is increasingly complex, and the dependence between people is also improved. In order to obtain the potential benefits in the doctrine, many rules that regulate the behavior between people, namely the institution, will come into being. This is the case with the emergence of religious doctrine. The rules that religious congregants follow between ACTS can lead to an increase in total social output.

The balance of system includes the balance of system arrangement and the balance of system structure. The former means that the supply of a particular system fully ADAPTS to the demand and thus is in a relatively static state, while the institutional structure equilibrium means that the mutual relations between different institutional arrangements are in a state of coordination and relatively static. The disequilibrium of the system refers to the unsatisfactory, intended and unchanging state of the social subject to the existing system.

The process of institutional change is also a game process. Whether institutional change can be achieved depends on the game among social subjects. The process of change is also very responsible, and different benefit adjustment methods may be presented in different stages, including pareto improvement and kaldor improvement.

First, exogenous change refers to the specific institutional change caused by the change of some social factors that do not belong to the system; Second, endogenetic changes to stop the evolution caused by incongruity within the system. North believes that in the process of institutional change, the status of the initial endowment of a social system will profoundly affect the choice of institutional change path, and such an initial endowment will produce path dependence. The path dependence of institutional change has two extreme forms, namely path dependence 1: along the established path, economic and political system change enters the track of virtuous circle and speed optimization; Path dependence 2: follow the original wrong path, often slipping, or even being "locked" in some unproductive state, resulting in stagnation.

Historical factors often lead to the self-sustaining mechanism of one or other inefficient system. Therefore, the unpredictable results have four characteristics: one is the multiple equilibrium, that is, there may be multiple solutions and the result is uncertain; the second is possible inefficiency. Efficient systems may not be adopted for some historical reasons and thus be replaced by inefficient ones; Three is locking. Once society is locked into an equilibrium point, it's hard to get out of it; Fourth, path dependence. A few occasional random results can lead to a particular institutional change path once the resolution becomes difficult.

The reason why Christianity prevailed in the west is that the "freedom and equality" advocated by Christianity is the core of capitalist values. With the progress of human society and self-reflection, the informal system and formal system of human society will inevitably lead to human reflection. What kind of system is in line with human needs, not against human nature, and can maximize the benefit of the whole society and the benefit of individuals at the same time.

Throughout history, god has disappeared in different cultures and violence in certain societies. But more often, the introduction of religion is combined with local culture, giving birth to new schools and branches. In a sense, in the process of evolution, the old god dies and the new god is born.

In the development of human technology and civilization, god's rules for human beings are often either strengthened or negated in the process of human speculation, and human beings play an active role in the process of rule-making. From the perspective of materialist development view, only by experiencing the negation of negation can things spiral upward. But if god suddenly disappears, the informal system, because of its path-dependence, will remain for some time, not immediately.

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