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Paper代写:Community archives in Europe and America

2018-09-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Community archives in Europe and America讨论了欧美的社群档案。社群档案,就是特定社群成员所形成的,记录社群历史的文件集合,并由社群成员自主管理社群档案的记录、保存、获取和利用。近年来,欧美兴起一系列建立在社群基础上的文化现象,并形成了不同的社群档案。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

In recent years, a series of cultural phenomena based on community emerged in Europe and America, and different community archives were formed. This paper takes the south Asian American digital archives as an example. By introducing its basic information, features and representative projects, it shows the operational mode of European and American community archives, and improves people's understanding of the construction of advanced community archives abroad.

The community archive mainly refers to the collection of documents formed by a specific community member to record the community history, and the community member independently manages the record, preservation, acquisition and utilization of the community archive. Among them, community members refer to groups with common identity, such as region, race, belief, gender, occupation, etc. At present, most community archival theories are created by scholars based on the large populations of developed countries and the legacy of complex colonialism, slavery, conquest and settlement, such as the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. In these countries, there are a number of independent archival practices carried out by communities, such as the black community in the UK, the gay community in Canada, and the nuja aboriginal community in Australia. In contrast, south Asian Americans have been a community in the United States, especially in California, for more than 130 years. It's also one of the fastest-growing communities in Los Angeles county. Their existence is increasingly impossible to ignore, and their history should be remembered. It can be said that it is the general immigration problem in the United States that prompts the foreign immigrant community like south Asian Americans to seek their own identity and historical records in the United States. Based on this, this paper takes the south Asian American digital archive as an example to introduce its related aspects of community archive practice, which makes people have a certain understanding of community archive construction in Europe and America.

South Asian Americans was founded in 2008, digital archives by michelle caswell and sami malik co-founded. When they work at the university of Chicago, michelle caswell in South Asia as the research direction of assistant bibliograph, sami's malik is South Asia research center in the promotion of the coordinator, they evaluate the south Asian American history archives and found no other archives can systematically collected data, the history of the south Asian American does not even have a archive for collection. At the same time, they consider that south Asian Americans are aging and their descendants are unable to preserve the historical material, plus many of the early 1990s social networking sites and native electronic materials have disappeared. As librarians and community organizers, they each invested $100 to buy server space and found collaborators who were good at managing nonprofit financial experience, building the south Asian American digital archive. "As an independent national nonprofit, the south Asian American digital archive is dedicated to providing a voice to a more inclusive society by documenting, preserving and sharing stories that represent the unique and diverse experiences of south Asian americans." This quote appears on the front page of the website, which is a good indication of the original intention of the south Asian American digital archive. At present, under the joint efforts of related personnel, the south Asian American digital archive has the world's largest publicly available collection of documents documenting the south Asian American experience, and it has become the only non-profit organization in the United States to record, preserve and provide the rich historical information of South Asia nationwide.

The south Asian American digital archive's staff consists mostly of boards and volunteers. Currently, the board consists of seven members, all of whom are of south Asian descent. They have different professional backgrounds, work in different industries, and serve as chairman, secretary and treasurer of the board of directors. It is worth noting that Sammy's malik is a member of the board of directors, the only paid.

In addition to board members, the service members of the south Asian American digital archive include volunteers across the United States. They are responsible for capturing, digitizing and describing materials. In numerous volunteers, Brian cook is another of the archives of the paid staff, he is mainly responsible for website of visual design and strategy of digital management. There are also lawyers who, gratuitously, help fill out registration documents, draft grant certificates for archives and handle copyright issues.

Most community archives collect traditional records, such as personal and organizational records, more centrally. They also collect other types of archival materials, including cultural relics, artwork, clothing, oral history, photographs, films, flyers, badges, newspapers, books and grey literature, to reflect important aspects of community life. For example, the Asian African and Caribbean performing artist archives is a archive storage institution for the preservation, sharing and dissemination of the performance art in the United Kingdom. The east London regional archives is an organization that records and maintains cultural heritage and related archives for various communities in the east London region. WISEArchive is an online community archive for seniors in Norfolk, dedicated to documenting and preserving the work experience of older adults, publishing WISEArchive staff conversations with respondents, and users can also add their own stories directly to the web page, including titles, articles, personal information, related photos, and more. In contrast, the south Asian American digital archive collects electronic documentation of various forms relating to the diverse history of migration in South Asia, particularly in its content, which focuses on the global south Asian immigrant community. In places like New York or queens, for example, there are many india-caribbean communities. These communities tend to be ignored by other south Asian American communities, and the south Asian American digital archive tries to include these communities in its collection. In addition, the south Asian American digital archive emphasizes the collection of materials related to early south Asian immigrants, anti-south Asian race riots, labor, students, religious organizations, political participation, artists and intellectuals. They have collected pamphlets against British rule by punjabi labourers in the early 20th century and online magazines by Muslim punk bands in the early 2000s.

Post-preservation mode means that the archives is not responsible for the custody of the archival entities, which are kept by their originators, and the archivists only provide support for their originators and custodians. As Mr Cook puts it: "the transition of archivists from physical custodians to knowledge providers is a requirement of the transition from custodian to custodian in response to the challenges of the electronic age." Cheap and relatively easy to use, in other words, scanning, upload and share the development of software technology popularization, make it easier for people to cross community social way to actively participate in the sharing and processing the documents, archival process of target image, the character location photos, and no longer subject to geographical distance, visit entity exhibition and the limitation of the archives of ability. Limited by their economic situation, the founders of the south Asian American digital archive clearly understood that they could not create a physical space to hold the archive permanently. So they opened a digital archives to private and family, the government or the university archives collection as the object, history of electronic materials, collect native electronic documents, archival and suitable way to describe them, use them and archives materials related links, eventually make anyone in the world can through the way of the Internet, free and easy access to the content. South Asian Americans is the basic principle of digital archives of electronic, as being professional archives staff leadership organization, the south Asian Americans digital archives in accordance with the standard of digital books in the library of congress, as far as possible using the scanner electronic materials of the highest quality, but in some special circumstances, they will also use the lower configuration of handheld scanner. And in keeping with LOCKSS, they keep multiple backup servers across the U.S. and store data in the cloud at the same time. The south Asian American digital archive has adopted such a post-storage model. After the electronic archive material, the physical material is still owned by the person, family, organization or archive it belongs to. The website only needs to manage the electronic content.

The lack of resources will hinder the growth of archives and the ability of future development. Therefore, as a non-profit organization, the biggest challenge is the source of resources. The south Asian American digital archive tackles this problem in three ways. First, the south Asian American digital archive is flexible in its use of various social resources. In addition to the website, it has set up Tides, an online magazine, registered Facebook and Twitter accounts, and used email lists to update the public about their recent activities. Take community BBS, for example, where they collect input from the south Asian American digital archive to help solve problems that might arise in other communities. Second, the website has been offering donation channels, and set up a progress bar to remind visitors of the fundraising process. As of 7 February 2016, a total of $29,482 had been received, representing 98 per cent of the target funds raised. Most of the fundraising comes from individuals. Third, strengthen cooperation with independent community archives and mainstream archives, cultural relics professionals or organizations. In addition to receiving help from volunteers across the United States, the south Asian American digital archive has set up an academic committee of university scholars to conduct further academic research on south Asians in the United States by supporting the work of the website. Common founder Michael kass weir is one of the members of the committee. As an assistant professor of history and Asia studies at saint Joseph's university, abbas works closely with the south Asian American digital archive in this work. In addition to dozens of oral interviews with men and women in South Asia, abbas looked through archives in England, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.

From its inception in 2008 through February 15, 2017, the south Asian American digital archive has 2,895 unique items online for visitors to view. The author chooses two of these projects to elaborate in detail. Both of them are close to community life and focus on exploring the diversity of community history from the personal experience of community members, so as to achieve the function of sharing and sharing and remembering history.

The south Asian American digital archive launched the "day one" project in 2013 to document and share the experiences of south Asian Americans on their first day in the United States. Specifically, the program listened to individual south Asian Americans' accounts of the obstacles they faced on their first day in the United States and why they left South Asia to reflect the diverse immigrant experiences of south Asians. People can upload no more than three minutes of audio, video, or 300 words of text, either about themselves or about family and friends on their first day in the United States. For example, the first day's story could include a video interview with a Hindu priest who came to the United States from Guyana in 1996, a text narrative written by a mumbai-based student who studied at manholan college in 1970, and a video narrative recorded in American sign language by an 11-year-old hyderabad in the United States since 1983. This participatory micro-history project validates the important historical role of ordinary people and responds to participants' desire to hear more stories from their predecessors. Therefore, within half a month, the website received more than 100 related stories and received positive responses from all walks of life.

Although these narrative reflects the social economy and the diversity of their immigration status, but the lack of leisure time and the disadvantages of technical barriers also hindered many working-class immigrants to participate in the activities, the archives of the volunteers through targeted interviews with the working class immigrants, the part of the problem to some extent. There are also undocumented immigrants who are reluctant to participate because of fear, which the archive allows participants to participate anonymously. For example, two anonymous stories provided by immigrants from Pakistan, who believed that speaking out about their experiences might negatively affect their lives, chose to participate in the project anonymously.

Although the main chronicler of the site is south Asian Americans, they hope that the United States and the world will be more fully aware of the importance of immigrant and ethnic communities in order to facilitate the development of existing communities and the discussion and positioning of their future roles. At the request of many other immigrant communities interested in the program, the site launched a new "day one" program in December 2014, which, unlike previous ones that only documented south Asian immigrant stories, aims to share stories about immigrants from all over the world arriving in the United States on the first day. As of mid-february 2016, the project had received 247 related stories.

In July 2015, the south Asian Americans digital archives launched its "ethnic indians in Philadelphia: immigrant community life" of the community photo project, the project will be for south Asian Americans and immigrants in Philadelphia to show them in the city has a diverse and depth of experience, to allow these communities in the greater Philadelphia public share their own experience. The project's three core components are photo shooting, display and image preservation. In this month's community photo project, the archive invited more than 30 south Asian Americans living across Philadelphia to upload photos on five topics related to their lives: home, family, work, entertainment and memory. After the photos were collected, the archives organized a reception for participants to share their experiences and ideas, and the photos uploaded were also available to the public on the site. The program helped Philadelphia's south Asian Americans recognize themselves as agents, creators, artists, thinkers and contributors to the city, and fostered their deeper feelings about the city.

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