欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

Paper代写范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

Paper代写:Greenhouse gas emissions from the European Union

2018-09-06 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Greenhouse gas emissions from the European Union讨论了欧盟的温室气体排放。在《京都议定书》缔结后,欧盟逐渐建立了一套控制温室气体排放的法律制度体系。这一体系坚持在能源和温室气体减排等领域统筹立法,以全面控制温室气体排放为目的,能源产业链为制度建构主线,形成一种“混合型”温室气体排放监管模式。其本质就是在能源产业链上游调整能源结构,控制化石能源投入,从根本上减少温室气体和大气污染物产生。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Greenhouse gas emissions,温室气体排放,paper代写,代写,essay代写

After the Kyoto protocol was concluded in 1997, the eu gradually established a legal system to control greenhouse gas emissions. Insisted that system in the energy, greenhouse gas emissions, atmospheric pollution prevention in the areas of legislation as a whole, for the purpose of comprehensive control of greenhouse gas emissions, seize the burning of fossil fuels is the common cause of greenhouse gases and air pollutants for this key, in the energy industry chain as the system construction of the main line, form a kind of "hybrid" greenhouse gas emissions regulation mode: in the energy industry chain upstream to adjust energy structure, control the fossil energy input, radically reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants; Establish a carbon emission trading system for large fixed sources of energy-intensive industries in the downstream energy industry chain, and pay attention to the connection between the emission trading directive and the comprehensive pollution prevention directive, and control the greenhouse gas emissions of other emission sources by means of "command and control". We will focus on improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the energy industry chain and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and atmospheric pollutants from energy sources.

The eu leads the world in co-ordinating energy legislation, controlling greenhouse gas emissions and preventing pollution. As a forerunner, the experience of the eu is undoubtedly of great enlightening and instructive significance to the latecomers. At present, China is actively promoting the amendment of the air pollution prevention and control law, the perfection of energy legislation and the legislation on climate change. In particular, the eu should learn from and draw lessons from the convergence of the content of the legislation and the synergistic effect of the regulation of energy and greenhouse gas emissions, especially the smart treatment of the eu industrial pollutant emission directive and the carbon emission trading directive.

In the European Union, 80% of greenhouse gas emissions come from the use of fossil fuels. "Because CO2 is the ultimate product of fossil fuel combustion, the harmful consequences of CO2 emissions should be avoided by either not using fossil fuels or capturing and sequestering CO2 before it is released into the atmosphere." The most active and effective means to control greenhouse gas emissions is to control greenhouse gas emissions based on energy use. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the primary energy structure, increase the proportion of renewable energy in primary energy structure and reduce the use of fossil energy. The eu also acknowledged that "unless energy policies are adjusted and measures taken to internalize the external costs of energy production and consumption, the eu's commitment to controlling greenhouse gas emissions will not be met." For this reason, in the field of energy, the eu first issued the directive to promote the use of renewable energy to generate electricity in 2001, and then amended the directive to promote the use of renewable energy in 2009.

From the content of the eu's directive on promoting the use of renewable energy, the eu's adjustment of primary energy structure has become an important part of its strategy to control greenhouse gas emissions. The eu's main measures for the development of renewable energy include: pushing member states to adopt various legal measures to expand the proportion of renewable energy in primary energy structure, expand the application of renewable energy in the field of secondary energy production and transportation, and reduce or control the total demand for fossil fuels in this field; While encouraging the development of biomass energy, the concept of whole-life cycle assessment is introduced to prevent the occurrence of one-sided development of biomass energy and the destruction of carbon sink by changing land use, so as to ensure that the utilization of biomass energy can truly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The advantage of this approach is that it can not only fundamentally control the emission of greenhouse gases such as CO2, but also control the emission of other air pollutants based on the combustion of fossil energy, thus achieving the synergistic control effect of greenhouse gas emission and atmospheric pollutant emission. However, the adjustment of energy structure in a single stroke, not overnight, can only be gradual. First, energy restructuring is not only about controlling greenhouse gas emissions, but also about multiple goals and requirements such as ensuring energy security, breaking through the lock-in effect of technologies, and ensuring healthy and sustainable economic and social development. Second, the adjustment of energy structure puts forward the requirements of improvement, innovation and elimination of various links, industrial structure, energy technology innovation and energy consumption terminal infrastructure in the energy industrial chain, all of which cannot be completed overnight. Thirdly, although the eu's 2009 directive on promoting renewable energy has promoted the development of renewable energy, from the perspective of energy structure, the eu has not established a legal system to control fossil energy consumption with the direct purpose of controlling carbon emissions. Although the European Union established an energy tax in 2003, the energy tax is not based on the carbon content of fossil fuels.

The characteristics of various GHG emission sources must be considered when establishing the legal system to control GHG emission at the energy consumption end. As far as the carbon emission trading system is concerned, in order to control the number of regulated subjects in order to ensure the authenticity of carbon emission data and the realization of emission reduction targets, the trading regulator only chooses the large direct source of greenhouse gas emissions at the end of energy consumption as the regulatory object. The design of EUETS is just that. As early as in 2000-2003 when determining the greenhouse gas emissions trading directive, the eu decided in the energy industry chain downstream choose energy related industries large fixed emitters of greenhouse gases for the regulated object, then it determines the carbon emissions trading system established in the European Union at the same time, the other remaining source of direct emissions of greenhouse gases must be use traditional command and control regulation legal system, to ensure that a carbon reduction target of carbon exchange implementation will not be offset by because of the carbon emissions increase in other areas.

Effective control of greenhouse gas emissions must improve and perfect energy legislation to ensure the stability of energy legislation. Adjusting the energy structure, increasing the proportion of renewable energy and controlling the input of fossil energy can fundamentally control the generation of greenhouse gases at the end of energy consumption. The stability of energy legislation is a basic condition for encouraging investment in energy, especially in the field of renewable energy. As has been said, given the capital-intensive and long-term nature of energy infrastructure and low-carbon facilities, investors have repeatedly emphasized the stability of the regulatory regime as a precondition for using private capital and technology to develop energy supplies and realize their low carbonization. So, must through fiscal measures, price signals, such as mechanism, encourage, promote and safeguard of renewable energy in all areas of application, control of fossil energy consumption, to investors made it clear that countries with different kinds of energy development strategy, to investors and the public realized that control greenhouse gas emissions, fundamentally speaking is a low-carbon revolution and energy revolution. Fourth, according to the different characteristics of greenhouse gas emission sources, the greenhouse gas emission control should be classified. Due to the energy industry chain downstream build system of greenhouse gas emissions, by the regulatory authority of the regulated objects of greenhouse gas emissions certified aspects of administrative cost factors such as limit, can only choose a larger fixed emission regulation, also determines the eu must according to different types of emission source adopt different regulatory approach to hybrid regulation. Taking the greenhouse gas emission trading system as the main regulatory tool, controlling the greenhouse gas emission from large fixed emission sources and controlling 40% of the total greenhouse gas emission in the European Union; With the support of the traditional "command and control" regulatory tools and guidance policy tools, control the greenhouse gas emissions of other fixed and mobile sources, and control the remaining 60% of the greenhouse gas emissions of the eu. In the eu, either a "market-based" EUETS or a "joint effort decision" based on "command and control" controls the production of greenhouse gas emissions on the energy consumption side.

The whole life cycle assessment concept is introduced to avoid the occurrence of overall carbon emission increase caused by one-sided pursuit of low-carbon development. While encouraging and promoting the development of renewable energy, the eu has also introduced the concept of the whole life cycle assessment, which means that land use change cannot be caused by the development of renewable energy, thus damaging the "carbon sink", so that overall carbon emissions are not reduced but increased. Land use control and other means should be adopted to prevent the occurrence of encroachment and destruction of wetlands and forest land with carbon sink function due to the development of renewable energy. In addition, in the use of advanced technology and measures to improve energy efficiency, also should be considered in order to achieve to improve the energy efficiency of its energy and the emission of greenhouse gases, if in order to improve the energy efficiency, and cause the overall energy consumption increasing, greenhouse gas emissions, and does not conform to control greenhouse gas emissions in the first place.

The legal purpose of controlling greenhouse gas emissions is not only to control greenhouse gas emissions in response to global climate change, but also to ensure the realization of energy security goals, encourage technological change and innovation, promote industrial restructuring, create new growth points for economic development and promote sustainable economic and social development. The overall objectives of the legal and policy framework for greenhouse gas emissions should be fully understood, namely to tackle global climate change, achieve energy security, create economic growth points, and achieve sustainable economic and social development. That is to say, laws and policies to control greenhouse gas emissions should realize the dual purpose of "low-carbon + development" and eventually achieve the goal of developing in a low-carbon and low-carbon way.

要想成绩好,英国论文得写好,51due代写平台为你提供英国留学资讯,专业辅导,还为你提供专业英国essay代写paper代写,report代写,需要找论文代写的话快来联系我们51due工作客服QQ800020041或者WechatAbby0900吧。

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站