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英国paper代写-Methodology of western political science

2018-08-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Methodology of western political science,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西方政治学的方法论。方法论意义上的新制度主义政治学反对用个体主义解释政治现象和政治过程,重视制度安排在政治生活中的作用,主张政治制度引导政治行为。现代西方政治学的发展与研究方法的演进紧密相关,从行为主义、理性选择到新制度主义,政治学研究的科学性与实践性不断增强。

western political science,西方政治学,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

The progress of the western politics closely related to the development of the methodology, the tendency of behaviorism politics embodies the scientific study of politics, rational choice theory, applying the method of economics to political analysis, new institutionalism in political science critically draw lessons from the behaviorism and rational choice theory, emphasized the importance of institutional research value, highlighting the integration of political science of academic and practical.

Methodology is the summation of categories, principles, methods and means that play a guiding role. The development of any discipline cannot be achieved without the support of research methods and analytical tools. The development of methodology itself is an important part of the academic development of the discipline, as is political science. Therefore, the methodology of political science is of great value. Since world war ii, the development of western politics, especially American politics, is closely related to the evolution and reform of methodology. This paper intends to analyze behaviorism, rational choice and neo-institutional politics from the perspective of methodology evolution, in an attempt to show the changing landscape of methodology of contemporary western politics, in the hope of enriching the understanding of methodology of political science and providing materials for improving the academic and scientific nature of political science research in China.

Behaviorism is a school of political science that rose up in the United States before and after world war ii and quickly occupied the mainstream position. Its essence is a revolution in the research method of political science, which is to study political behavior and political process with the analytical tools of natural science and empirical methods. The masters of behaviorism politics, represented by lathwell, easton, almond, etc., advocated "the empirical approach to study the political behavior of individuals or groups, and advocated the value neutrality in political science research."

Behaviorism is not incidental, but the product of the interaction between history and reality. Behaviorism originated from the criticism of traditional politics. Traditional politics focuses on the design of political system, that is, how to realize good public life by building a good political system. Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, montesquieu, and federalist political thought all reflect this. Value, speculation, abstractness and qualitative analysis are its remarkable characteristics. However, with the completion of the bourgeois revolution, the construction of basic system of the capitalist countries are gradually completed, "in the political life of the contradiction and struggle is not focused on establishing what kind of political system, but to take what kind of public policy", based on this, in the past only pay attention to the static system, legal text description and ignores the tendency of research on political behavior by fierce criticism. On the other hand, the combination of scientific complex in political science research and new achievements in modern natural science research has become another impetus for the emergence and development of behaviorism. Since the 20th century, psychology, anthropology, sociology and other disciplines have developed rapidly. A series of new tools and means, such as sampling survey, questionnaire interview and other social survey methods, as well as statistical techniques such as data analysis and probability theory, have provided abundant resources for behaviorism. A political science and natural science methods of combining the ancient tradition, in ancient Greece, the natural sciences and social sciences is not separation, such as Plato's idea theory and mathematics has inherent relation, this makes Plato "believed that mathematics, geometry method can be used for political analysis of spinoza and Hobbes's ancient pioneers"

The methods of behaviorism mainly include value neutrality and empirical study. Value neutrality mainly embodies the value neutrality of research object and research subject. Behaviorists believe that the problem of fact can be observed and verified, while the problem of value cannot be observed and verified. Political scholars should not study the "ought to be" problem, but only study the problem of fact, and draw a clear line between the research object and ideology. In addition, the researchers' personal emotional color and value orientation also hinder the scientization of political science. In order to avoid the distortion of research results by personal emotions, researchers should maintain a completely neutral attitude. The empirical research method is mainly embodied in the empirical basis of the research. Its framework models include the observation of political phenomena, the determination of research topics, the construction of a conceptual system, the making of theoretical assumptions, the formulation of a relational model, the collection of data, computer technology to collate data, and conclusions.

Behaviorism makes use of the tools of psychology, statistics, sociology and system theory to enrich the methods and means of political science research. Political psychology, political culture, political anthropology and other research branches have greatly expanded the research scope of political science. "The rise of behaviorism politics, reconstruct the basic concepts and analysis methods of the modern western political science, promote the integration between natural science and social science, improve the level of the systematic study of politics" in the 1970 s but behaviorism method decline and backward behavioral evolution, this is the result of the limitations of the methodology itself. Value neutrality impossible to achieve in social science research, some scholars criticized the value neutrality means that scholars to give up their social responsibility, as buchanan said: "if political career is interpreted as similar scientific career, there is a tyranny of potential" is the empirical research method makes the lack of response and the ability to solve problems of political reality, "politics is becoming don't care about politics"

Rational choice theory is regarded as an important sign of the transformation of behaviorism politics to backward behaviorism, and the product of applying the theoretical assumptions, analytical tools and analytical methods of modern economics to political research. Since the 1960s, rational choice has developed rapidly as a research trend and research method, attracting the attention of a large number of European and American economists and political scholars. "There are few areas in politics that have not been affected by it."

The ideological origin of rational choice theory can be traced back to the political philosophy tradition of Hobbes and spinoza, as well as the political science source of Madison and tocqueville. The great economic crisis of 1929 showed the malpractice of the free market order, and keynesianism with state intervention as the core gradually became the mainstream. With the increasing breadth and depth of government intervention, people realize that government intervention as a means to correct market failure also has disadvantages. On this basis, the rational choice theory which explains the politics and selection process in democratic society with the theoretical tools and analytical paradigm of economics has become the theoretical basis of the western public sector management practice, especially the government reform practice.

The methodology of rational choice is embodied in three aspects: methodological individualism, economic hypothesis and transactional politics. Whether private or collective activities, whether economic or political processes, individuals are the ultimate decision-makers and actors. Therefore, the analysis of political activities should start from the individual as well as the analysis of economic activities. No matter what position an individual is in, he/she takes the pursuit of the maximization of his/her personal interests as the most basic motive. Politics is a series of transaction process carried out by political actors out of self-interest motive, political process is the transaction motive, transaction behavior and benefit transaction as well as economic process. The transactional approach to observe politics gives people a new perspective to understand the political process outside of power politics.

Rational choice theory strengthens the communication within political science and economics, provides a unified humanistic basis for the analysis of social and political issues, and ADAPTS to the requirements of scientific politics. However, its methodological basis still has inherent defects that cannot be overcome. The economic man hypothesis ignores the other characteristics of human nature, and it is not comprehensive to attribute all human behaviors to seeking to maximize their own interests. The economic man hypothesis lacks sufficient empirical basis in the political field, but is only a logical deduction. The unrestricted application of the trading principles of the market economy to the political sphere can easily lead to misunderstanding of the political process. Even so, the rational choice theory and new institutionalism politics still has intrinsic correlation "rational choice theory assumes that individuals are rational person, is derived from the conclusion is not people's economic incentives but attaches great importance to the political system of the design influence on behavior choice, the system theory of Renaissance in attaches great importance to the system efficiency of the sense of support force"

Methodological neo-institutional politics is against the use of individualism to explain political phenomena and political processes, attaches importance to the role of institutional arrangements in political life, and advocates that political systems guide political behavior. New institutionalism: organizational factors in political life published by march and olsen in 1984 marked the emergence of new institutionalism politics.

New institutional politics is based on the critical absorption of behaviorism and rational choice of politics. First, it questions the assumption that political behavior reflects preferences. The new institutionalism opposes the political behavior as the basic element of political analysis, because the behavior takes place in the institutional environment. The logical consistency of the theoretical analysis of rational choice is based on its one-sided and profound nature. In addition, the new institutionalism economics promoted by north, Williamson and others takes institution as an important variable to explain the thinking of economic growth and social change and its achievements also have an important influence on the reversion and rise of institutional research path in political science.

Methodological new institutionalism emphasizes the role of institution and state. First, the system as an analysis variable to affirm the important value of the system. Political system is not a simple aggregation of social members' preferences. It limits the choice range of political behavior and affects people's value judgment. Institutions affect rules, behavior and political outcomes. The emphasis of the new institutionalism on the system represents the retrospection and transcendence of the old institutionalism of politics. Different from the macro-structure analysis of traditional old institutionalism and the micro-individual analysis of behaviorism and rational choice theory, the new institutionalism combines institutional analysis and behavioral analysis to achieve a significant transformation from macro-theory and micro-analysis to the construction of middle-level theory. Second, affirm the role of the state. In behaviorism and rational choice theory, the role and status of the state is underestimated or even ignored. Behaviorism replaces states with terms such as "political systems," and rational choice theory holds that "each state is a leviathan pursuing tax and surplus maximization, and therefore must limit the scope of the state's role." On the basis of criticizing absorbing behaviorism and rational choice theory, the new institutionalism relocates the nature of the country and proposes to "recover the country". The state is not a arena for the struggle of social forces, but an entity with its own structural nature and operational logic. It can follow its own preferences and behavior to a certain extent.

The new institutionalism's criticism of behaviorism and rational choice theory advanced the development of social science. In the field of economics, rational choice theory attracts a large number of economists to study institutional problems, which makes the separation of politics and economics recombined. In the field of sociology, the new institutionalist's expansion of the concept of institution has realized the universalization of the concept of institution and provided an important research method for the development of sociology. However, the new institutionalism is a loose aggregation. In terms of the specific theoretical construction, no consensus has been reached within the new institutionalism, and the new institutionalism also exists the possibility that can not be falsified to varying degrees.

In short, the development of modern western political science is closely related to the evolution and update of research methods. From behaviorism, rational choice to new institutionalism, the scientific and practical nature of political science research has been strengthened constantly. The evolution of methodology is not the total negation but the assimilation. The research methods of political science with Chinese characteristics that we are going to build today are open and diversified. By drawing on the achievements of western political science, we can draw on the strengths and avoid the weaknesses, summarize the rules of political life, formulate the rules of political life, elevate the value of political life and realize the ideal of political life.

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