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Paper代写-Conservatism

2018-08-04 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Conservatism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了保守主义。保守主义是近现代西方主要政治思潮之一,是一种政治哲学和政治意识形态,与激进主义相对应。“保”就是保持现状与稳定,“守”就是守住传统和秩序。因历史背景不同和策略需要,保守主义有种种表现形式,但要求维护社会现状和历史传统,反对社会重大变革是其基本主张。

Conservatism,保守主义,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

Conservatism is a kind of political philosophy and political ideology. To preserve is to maintain the status quo and stability, and to keep is to keep tradition and order. Due to different historical backgrounds and strategic needs, conservatism has various forms of expression, but it requires maintaining the social status quo and historical traditions, and opposing major social changes is its basic proposition.

Daily life, people's understanding of conservatism has many meanings, and it as a whole, the word "conservative" and "conservative" and "reactionary" and "negative" and "stubborn", "rigid" and conservatism, conservatism is distorted as refused to change, unconditional centralization and establish the political authority, or even that conservatism is intact conservative old cultural traditions. In fact, there is no necessary connection between conservatism and conservatism. Conservatism is an old and new attitude, which is mainly manifested as being content with the status quo and unwilling to see any kind of drastic change, whether rapid advance or big step backward. "Conservatism" in conservatism corresponds to "radicalism", not "progress". We can say that conservatism does not oppose progress itself, but only opposes progress in a radical way.

In blackwell encyclopedia of political science, conservatism refers to a kind of "political art with harmony, balance and restraint as its content for the purpose of maintaining limited politics". The author believes that conservatism should be called "conservatism" -- keeping firmly the achievements in the history of mankind. "preservation" means maintaining the status quo and stability, while "preservation" means keeping tradition and order. Due to the different historical background and the need of strategies, conservatism has various historical aspects, but its basic proposition is to maintain the social status quo and historical traditions, and oppose major social changes.

The principle of social continuity. The human society in the conservative view is an organism. Therefore, conservatism advocates that human society should maintain continuity with the past. In the face of social change, it adopts a gradual and prudent attitude and tries not to disturb the normal order of the original society. Generally speaking, conservatism always adheres to the continuity of historical development, insists that traditional culture can be transformed into modern factors, advocates that tradition is the basic version of the development of modern society and opposes radical changes. "All great nations are conservative, slow to believe in new things, patient in practice with error, deeply and permanently convinced that the laws and customs which were once established and long regarded as just and ultimate are great." Thus, conservatives have always believed that "man is history in history, man is history, man is history". The experience gained in human history and the dignity and value of human beings should be respected, and any change in human society can only be made gradually and prudently. "Institutions and morality, language and law, have evolved through a cumulative process. Only in this historical framework of self-awareness can human society function successfully.

Traditional principles. According to conservatism, the basic meaning of tradition is that it refers to something passed down from the past, which is a kind of "accumulation" of history and can be repeated in time. Tradition refers to the practice and etiquette of conveying the past to the present. Believe that "there is always continuity in tradition, and there must be continuity These continuity should be described as a flowing river. To advocate respect for tradition is to respect the achievements of human civilization as a whole and the accumulated customs of groups. It is believed that the respect for tradition is not blindly conservative and does not want to progress, but people have realized through experience that tradition is a precious heritage left by history to human beings and the crystallization of the wisdom of generations of human ancestors.

Conservatism argues that "tradition gets people's attention because it is the object of all kinds of revolution and an obstacle to progress." "Tradition is the medium of people and society Tradition embodies moral possibilities, so it offers all sorts of opportunities. Without tradition, individuals will be lost because they don't know how to live... The individual obtains all possible lives from tradition, and the good life mainly depends on the possibilities provided to them by tradition. Whether people like it or not, tradition is an unavoidable reality. Popper believes that tradition rightly emphasizes that our beliefs come primarily from inheritance at all times, not from our own creation. Burke has pointed out that "a system of government based on a long tradition of accumulation is superior to one based on the principle of reasoning, and this advantage lies precisely in the accumulation and testing of experience in the past "

The principle of prudence. The most hated and hated thing of conservatism is the social reform carried out in a radical way. Because the radical reform is the most likely to lead to the collapse of the society, conservatism advocates cautious reform and emphasizes that caution is the first virtue of politicians. In freedom and tradition, burke writes that prudence is a virtue in all things, and a principal virtue in politics. Prudence will lead us to acquiesce in certain limited plans, rather than to pursue them vigorously. Of all the changes that have taken place in the country, moderation is a virtue, not only peaceful and friendly, but also powerful. This is a carefully chosen, mediation, compromise, and harmony. It can be seen from this that the reason why prudence becomes a necessary virtue and attitude of social change is related to the conservative understanding of people. From the point of view of conservatism, human rationality is imperfect and has inevitable limitations. Therefore, knowledge acquired through human rationality also cannot avoid its limitations.

Diversity principle. Conservatism holds that diversity itself is the product of freedom, without which there is no diversity. If we want to make the whole world in order and make everyone a chess piece on the social chessboard and a screw on the national machine, we must suppress individuality and deprive freedom. Therefore, conservatism believes that the pursuit of diversity and development of personality is of vital importance. The pursuit of diversity requires the maintenance of freedom, and the effective way to maintain freedom is the decentralization of power. It is precisely through the maintenance of diversity and competition, and through this free choice, that people are gradually trying to find social, political, economic systems and ways of organizing social life that are relatively human. From this point conservatives see the need for free association. It is believed that if a society is governed from top to bottom by imposing political, economic and social control, it must imprison people's creativity and the free flow of people's energy and put them into the plan. And people's creativity and energy are unplanned and uncoercive, and such a society will certainly become a dead society, not a thriving one. So conservatives insist on diversity and uniqueness.

Imperfect principles. When discussing human nature, conservatism puts forward a famous rogue hypothesis principle. In this principle, when considering institutional arrangements, one must assume that everyone should be presumed to be a rascal. This principle illustrates the idea that, since all politicians and political actors can become "rascals" and "rational" profit-seeking animals in political life, it is necessary to establish a strong mechanism of restraint and make sure that the mechanism of restraint comes first and people obey it. In the view of conservatism, when people set relevant political rules in pursuit of a good political life, they should not base their hopes on eliminating the evil motives of human nature. Rather than trying to turn everyone into an angel without evil desires, it is better to settle for the second, and assume everyone as a scoundrel, based on the concept of passive defense. "Rogue hypothesis" principle is a conservative state methodological thought premise: in the political system and rules of establishment, the first thing to do is not uphold a "person all can as rao" romantic view of human nature, but in the worst situation as the starting point, everyone could become a rogue, will make the behavior of the rogue. Therefore, after the establishment of the political system and rules, we should not only effectively suppress the behavior of scoundrels, but also prevent people from all kinds of "scoundrels" that harm the public and themselves.

The principle of gradual development. This principle of conservatism is similar to the colloquial expression "crossing the river by feeling the stones". It believes that human progress can only be tested forward a little at a time. An important advantage of this method is that it can avoid important mistakes. As lindblom points out, "if he is working through a 'continuous' gradual change, there are ways he can avoid serious, persistent mistakes." In addition, conservatism believes that in the process of progressive politics, although the losers have suffered a little loss, they will not destroy the whole political system, because it is implemented in a relatively stable, non-confrontational or weak confrontation, and the damage and harm to the system are relatively small. As the saying goes, "gathering sand makes a big difference" and "gathering arms makes a big difference", conservatives argue that while a small, gradual evolution may seem slower, in fact the total change in an imperceptibly steady development may be greater than one or a few limited number of rapid changes.

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