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paper代写-Still lifes

2018-06-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Still lifes,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了静物画。静物画作为西方绘画体系中的之一,是以静态物体作为研究与表现的对象的一种绘画艺术形式。从历史的角度去看,它早就以绘画的一种特殊形式而存在,但古代的静物画并不具有独立的审美意义。静物画在十九世纪已经成为一种固定的艺术形式,有许多画家从事静物画作,这种曾经卑微一时的艺术形式受到广泛尊重。

Still lifes,静物画,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

As one of the western painting systems, still life painting is a kind of painting art form in which static objects are the objects of study and expression. From the perspective of history, it has long existed in a special form of painting, but the ancient still life painting did not have independent aesthetic significance. Still life in Italian called natura morta (inanimate nature), appeared in the middle of the eighteenth century, with elegant painting type natura vivente  while the latter is the only type of recognition from school, so natura morta with a derogatory sense. Not too early in the era of vasari, art history in the literature has been depicted all kinds of "natural objects, animals, tools, vases, landscape, vegetation", it was not long before the term in the Netherlands and so on have been translated into stilleven, in Germany and the UK are translated into stilleben and still life, namely the still life. From the perspective of western traditional art, still life painting is only a branch of painting, and it is not treated as the same as still life painting and other subjects. In the seventeenth century, the Paris academy of fine arts had a strict hierarchy of all types of painting. Therefore, it is regarded as a depiction of inanimate objects only, which is not consistent with the noble ideological requirements of the time. At that time, the history of painting is the highest type, it basically is the bible, classical mythology, and major historical fish and shellfish from Pompeii events such as the subject, in the history of painting is a portrait, animals, and in turn under the scenery, the last is still lifes. This hierarchy has nothing to do with aesthetics but follows the boffili tree, in which the inanimate, philosophical system of immaterial objects is the lowest form of living things.

The eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD buried cities such as Pompeii. As Pompeii excavations of the eighteenth century, we know the Romans had a resembles the posterity, still lifes survived those works reproduce the goods and as we know it today still lifes almost completely consistent, items such as fruit, flower basket, bread, POTS, plates, fish and so on. According to existing research results, although these objects have many similarities with later still life paintings, there seems to be no inherent causal relationship between them. Both to the greeks and Romans later, the emergence of these goods just embodies the consignor's interest, therefore, due to the craftsmanship of artists to achieve temporary interest cannot be classified as a specific category of art.

Known ancient paintings of still life shows that it mainly exists in the two ways: one is the Mosaic and the way of coloured drawing or pattern appears in the villa has been buried and burial chamber, such as animals, plants, vessels, etc. While on the subject has a certain amount of independence, but we are not able to include some form of expression within the still lifes, cannot reproduce in the Oriental relief and painting placed beside the dead flowers and as still lives, and animals, the reappearance of the Greek vase on the sacrifices of the dead, too, they are just part of the whole picture. For the period of the Greek and Roman mansion, the tomb of coloured drawing or pattern decoration, often appear in the relief group, such as plants and animals and utensils, can think that they are on the subject of independence, but these parts have not been clear intention combined into a subject of the painting, they tend to serve the decorative function; The other is a "gift painting" with a votive object, the Greek name for a food gift given to a guest by an upper class.

Since about the fourteenth century, the themes of real life and natural scenes have been appearing in paintings, and artists have become increasingly interested in observing and thus faithfully describing the details of things around them. Hope to works of art to decorate the family of the emergence of the affluent middle class, and the influence of religious reform movement, the portrait of secularism painting growing demand has led to the rise of still life.

Still life during this period in the formation and development stage, from the aesthetic pursuit and subject sense of work analysis, there are two obvious mentioned throughout the development process, the first is as a rediscovery of the natural world; The second is as a form of symbolism and religious meaning, which is also the beginning of the early still life painting mapping to the present world. For example, the skull in the early nederlands symbolizes death; The burning candle, falling petals or hourglass symbolize the beauty and transience of life, while the flowers and fruits of the seasons symbolize the cycle of nature.

Early 14th century, giotto in padua drew some works can be called still lifes, but these things are in tune with his extremely neat style, the picture content remain in a subordinate position, indicating that the Italian still lifes even at an early stage in the fifteenth century painting also maintained a perspective of secularism and the illusion of dual attachment, at the time, it is mainly used in marquetry. Formula to explore an ideal characteristics, namely, strict formula of geometry and perspective of making enchases craft artist to reproduce object rather than flowers, fruit, occasional still lifes instance is also on the perspective of practice level.

However, with a clear and independent purpose, the same theme as the so-called "still life painting" originated in the 15th century. Beauty in a picture by writing on the back of the portrait of Lin, there is a vase, a vase on emblazoned with the words of Christ, and with the lilies, iris and honeysuckle, all these flowers are the significance of the virgin chastity, beauty, Lin painting of flowers and plants is likely to have a certain meaning, related to be reproduced. It is undoubtedly one of the earliest known still life paintings.

The 15th century, humanism spirit gradually occupy the dominant position in the Italian painting, with the development of style, naturalism, still lifes ingredients fully coordinated with various components of the composition. It can be said that since this period, still life painting has gained independent status and unique interest. Mr. Barry's famous "partridges and iron gloves" well embodies the humanistic spirit, and produced in the illusion of the medieval art also keep a certain correlation, namely the constant pursuit of a visual sense of wrong.

In the Netherlands, religious theme paintings of still life paintings had great progress, is one of the most important still life painter cen, many of his works depicting the landscape will be religious theme organically combined with the daily life, interesting highlight in front of the object, the religious scene in retirement after these objects, showed a strong interest of still life. From his works, we can feel the Netherlands at the time of social, economic and common prosperous picture, his works in two meanings: first, the right mediate the relationship between religion and the reality, reflect the Dutch national characteristic of the humanistic spirit; Secondly, it shows the evolution of the early still life painting from the subordinate position of altzen's meat stall painting to the independent theme. His paintings had a profound impact on the later European fashion of tablet-style still life paintings.

In 1566, the anti-catholic iconoclasm in the Netherlands led to a popular uprising against Spain. Seven provinces in 1581, after a long struggle, the north won independence, republic of China, established the united province in 1609, the Netherlands and Spain signed the "twelve years truce agreement, through this agreement, in fact the Spanish to admit that the Dutch independence. The Netherlands was originally a land of protestantism, the birthplace of calvinism. When the Netherlands declared its independence, it became a place of protestant development. In the first half of the 17th century, Holland became an economic and trade power. At that time, Holland had more than 20,000 ships and three-quarters of the world's merchant ships. With the development of maritime transport, the Netherlands entered the peak period of political, economic and cultural art. The Netherlands was a typical commercial national bourgeoisie, the church and the monarch is not dominant, it neither luxurious palace, also not built magnificent church, architecture and sculpture is not very rich, and the service for the citizen class, the merchant class daily life painting depicting the labor are particularly valued. It is fashionable for citizens to decorate their homes with paintings.

The Dutch economy is very prosperous, and thus there was a group of emerging middle class, when the painter painting before, Catholic painter's biggest customer, in the past regardless of Michelangelo and Raphael, many works are commissioned by the Pope. After independence from the Spanish Catholic church in the 17th century, the largest source of visitors was cut off. This new middle class became the biggest new client for Dutch painters. "These practical asset class, don't focus on the religious thought, not strongly opposed to Latin culture, they don't worship of idols dedicated to a religion", they need a kind of interest they, they can understand the art, in other words, is a kind of the art of depicting the face of the class itself. The rise of this new middle class, with the money to buy paintings, has created another painting craze in the Netherlands.

The seventeenth century was the golden age of Dutch painting. The victory of the revolution to promote economic and cultural prosperity, the emerging countries one of the European centre for advanced thought at that time, the Dutch artists with a sense of national pride, with practical technique in the work performance of the motherland people's life and the natural scenery, painting was finally out of the palace noble and the attachment of the Catholic church, and began to serve the emerging bourgeois. With the emergence of painting market and art dealer, painting become the goods on the market, to meet the needs of the people's life and aesthetic, painting varieties than in the past greatly expanded, in addition to the religious history of paintings and portraits, customs, painting landscapes, still life and animals also for the development of important type.

For the increasing capital, the main place that the Dutch can consume is the indoor space. During this period, the interior changes of the Dutch people are always full of brilliant things. Dutch still lifes that newly rich society rather than of a dialogue between the material wealth, it involves a albedo, namely the idea of wealth feedback to create the wealth of the society, which inevitably brought back to how people perceive and understand the performance of the rich phenomena. We can start with a simple flower painting. In the broad Theseus, Bosch Hal's "the niche of flowers," people can obvious notice, the sort of wild flowers are never come, when the flowers were collected indoor, bouquet has a cultural meaning, can be made generous with nature, and the generous presented during the specific time and space in a year of specific forms, etc. , for example, in a garden of Pompeii, people from the representation can see on the wall is those in the Bosch halt the niche of flowers the same natural landscape can be found in the flowers and trees, the results are formed on the natural sites of people in a natural that an idyllic view; Dutch flower paintings are not pastoral or even anti-pastoral, as the selected flowers require a high degree of gardening experience to survive. They are not so much natural as planted flowers. Bosch, draw all the flowers in the Hal is completely to the United States blossom real record, paintings, the finalized are often is a collection of many different sketch, nature will never exist or exist in the mix, in some cases, the Dutch flowers painting is obtained from the artificial painting of rare plant species, of course this is not to deny in the Dutch painting of Renaissance mode and there is a constant, niche on the rail in the painting was crawling on the housefly see the symbolic meaning of life is short - death of the body is then to decay, The placement of the vase contains a great sense of distance. When the sense of place is combined with the sense of seasons, it refers to people's vulnerability and the space and time limit of their life. At the same time the Dutch still life painting is also in a number of economic space, the first kind of botanical garden. Botanical garden was first under the auspices of the European court, in the development of building such a botanical garden is a huge project, the only country to find the source of the funds, and this kind of sponsorship bring a gardening character of a link between political power and the contact to the flower painting very high social reputation; The second is speculative field, it is a kind of relationship with the cash, is that they are in a symbolic capital value, on the other side of the flower painting interest are closely connected with the market awareness of the rare breed together, what the market value is the painter pursues. The Dutch still life painting intends to see the source of the value that the painting itself relies on in the object it depicts. A third of the field of painting itself, spent on flowers painting the intensity of labor is higher than other still lifes, so the flower painting only in people's demand for its young in a enough to make the painter when labor is paid to flourish. It can be seen that behind Dutch flower painting, not only the picture itself and the skill of the painter, but also the reflection of market demand, labor value and the support of economy and power.




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