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英国paper代写-Constitutional poetry

2018-06-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Constitutional poetry,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了宪章派诗歌。宪章派诗歌,是19世纪30-50年代在英国宪章运动中出现的反映工人生活与诉求的诗歌,其作者都是宪章运动者。宪章派诗歌既是英国激进主义文学传统的延续,也是对浪漫派和大众文学审美价值取向的反思与超越。它借鉴了大众文学的通俗化、大众化、颠覆性,但在张扬欲望、追求感官快适的大众文学中,注入了现实关怀与信仰维度。

Constitutional poetry,宪章派诗歌,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

"Constitutional poetry" is not a satisfactory concept, because it is the result of simple binding of political movement and literature, and implies obvious ideology. As a result, people tend to regard it as a tool to serve the chartist movement and avoid its literariness. The poetry of the constitutional school was always overshadowed during the hundred years after its birth. In the last 80 years, although there have been many studies, they only focus on the political connotation or cultural connotation, and do not view it from the perspective of literature. Is it really lacking in literature, or is it ignored?

There are different opinions on the connotation of literariness in academic circles. However, in the Chinese context, it is generally not agreed that literariness is the formalist understanding of literary language skills and procedures, because it is not unique to literature. The debate on literariness in the contemporary Chinese context mainly revolves around three questions, one is the question of attribute, that is, the difference between literature and non-literature. Because literature and non-literature are not isolated, it is not easy to distinguish between them, so different viewpoints are drawn. But literature must have its own idiosyncrasies, or, as kahler puts it, it "loses its centrality as a particular subject of study", and the result will be "the end of literature". The second is whether literariness should include the ideological value of literature. This problem develops in the literature, and its conclusion tends to be consistent. That is to say, literariness is not only reflected through artistic value, but also through aesthetic and emotional ideological content. The third is whether literariness should include the accepted literariness. Essentialism holds that literariness refers to the literariness of the text, while constructivism holds that literariness is the ideological product of historical construction. It should be said that both of these views are biased. The former views literature completely outside the historical dimension as a self-sufficient existence. The latter, in the opposition between phenomenon and essence, makes the phenomenon the essence of understanding. The investigation of literary nature should include not only the confirmation of literary attribute, the evaluation and hierarchical orientation of literary value of text, but also the sorting and reflection of its accepting history.

The confirmation of literary attribute is the first step to study literary character. As far as constitutional poetry is concerned, it is to examine whether it has literary autonomy as a whole, that is, whether its creation and development have its own logic and internal structure of development.

Constitutional poetry, which reflects the life and demands of the workers, emerged in the British charter movement in the 1830s and 1850s. In every poem, of course, they are literature. But as a whole constitutional poetry has a literary attribute? Existing studies call it "proletarian poetry". On the surface, this definition seems to confirm its literary attribute, but in fact, it only points out its political orientation and does not clearly answer whether it has literary attribute. Is it an autonomous literary movement, or is it just a tool for the chartist movement?

Indeed, it has strong political leanings. But its literary autonomy cannot be denied because of its political orientation. Because as the literature autonomy while literary aesthetic activities beyond the quality of the external world restriction, but also freedom consciousness of practice in the literary performance, so there can be no abstract of literature autonomy. If viewed from the perspective of the development history of English literature, constitutional poetry is a literary movement with its own development logic and internal structure.

Before the 19th century Europe, literature is a general and vague concept, referring to all text materials, emphasize its value connotation, which embodies the value of a particular social class rules of writing. After the "aesthetic" of literature at the end of the 18th century, literature was "gradually confined to the so-called 'creative' or 'imaginative' works". This change established the position of aesthetic subject in literature, and also led to the separation between elite literature and popular literature.

On the face of it, as a romantic school of English elite literature in the early 19th century, it only focused on natural beauty and individual emotion. In fact, it does not lack social attention and responsibility. "None of the romantic writers of the 19th century in Britain were politicians," notes blandus. Raymond Williams agrees, to participate in political and social affairs, romantic is the main source of experience. The romantic poets were mostly political activists who closely linked literature with social responsibility. What they oppose is autocracy and crude materialism, not political and social affairs themselves. Everything for this purpose, the romantic primitive and undecorated and innocent things as a "natural", in order to beautiful, pure feeling, sensibility and natural way involved in politics and society, bearing the responsibility of salvation. It tries to restore the creativity, imagination and intuition poisoned by industrial civilization with pure beauty and transcendence without the alienation of utilitarianism.

The romantics not only pay attention to the big events in politics and society, but also extend their pen to the inner life of individuals, focusing on the trivial and humble living conditions of individuals and their spiritual world. Especially for the repressed and helpless individual lives in the course of history, the humanitarian care and rescue. Brandeis pointed out that this new literature "represents the 'people' -- the underclass of the 18th century that literature did not care about."

But romantic style by the mainstream ideology gives remedy malpractices of "to" social salvation, is seen as above all social purpose human ideals, for people to worship the new religion. Especially its involvement in the field of consciousness only in spirit, or pure fantasy, or pessimism blue race into the ivory tower indulge in beautiful romantic fantasy, more and more far away from the masses and reality. If it has revolutionary nature, it is only a pure literary and artistic revolution, but it cannot bring real social revolution. While the romantics became more and more elitist and aestheticized, another literary form, popular literature, was formed.

As a product of industrialization and urbanization, the main characteristic of popular literature is "vulgarity". Not only refers to popular, but also includes monotonous, plain, superficial, sense of officialization, kitsch, even vulgarity and vulgarity. In the pre-industrial era, there are also vulgar literature based on the bottom of the society, but it is not always opposed to elite literature, but also carries the national literature tradition and has social responsibility. They complement each other and form an "organic community" combining elite literature and popular literature interests. As leavis says, by the second half of the 17th century, popular literature was unified with elite literature. Industrialization and urbanization have corrupted the public interest and split the original "organic community". Full of utilitarian color of authors and publishers through modern media such as newspapers, magazines, publications, detective, horror, romance, such as "imaginative" writing to provide to the public, for the lonely life, anxiety, disappointment, and under the weight of city provides a catharsis of proletarians, escape from the world's exports. On the point of "imagination", either as the romantic elite literature or as the popular literature, it is the direct result of the change of the concept of "literature". However, in terms of cultural inheritance and social responsibility, the two are gradually moving away. Industrialization and urbanization under the background of popular literature, popular literature, not only the lack of aesthetic qualities and creative, and full of consumerism and hedonism tendencies, is the desire of revelry, lack of social care and bear.

Nevertheless, popular literature is not without its merits. As the projection of citizens' desire, as the original ecological transplantation of urban life, it reflects the real human nature. The emergence of mass literature also means that the groups that were not involved in culture in the past have begun to have their own cultural demands and cultural enjoyment, thus "breaking through the phenomenon of upper and middle class monopolizing literature". In the development of "western marxism" later, admits that "positive words" of popular literature, such as communication fast, convenient, and the consciousness of "subversion" of capitalism, etc., are its positive energy.

The romantic group stopped in the spiritual realm of resistance, the reality of insufficient penetration, difficult to take the responsibility of saving the world. The utilitarianism and consumerism tendency of mass literature make it lack of social responsibility. It is in this context that the constitutional poetry came into being. Constitutional poetry is not only a continuation of the tradition of English radical literature, but also a reflection and transcendence on the aesthetic value orientation of romanticism and popular literature. It has absorbed the surging passion, the consciousness of intervention, the democratic feelings and the rational aesthetics of the romantic school, but confined to the aesthetic utopia of spiritual field resistance, it has promoted the romantic school to the social practice level. It draws lessons from the universalization, popularization and subversion of popular literature, but in the public literature of making public the desire and pursuing the rapid adaptation of the senses, it infuses the realistic care and belief dimension.

Constitutional poetry does not appear as an appendage to the chartist movement, but has the logic and internal structure of the development of literature itself. It and the charter movement are evocative and the deepening of the relationship, is literature and the political movement of the mutual covenant. Its alliance with the chartist movement, is outside of the world literature just common happened to the appeal within the literature, so the internal structure of the development of political life in literature found in one place, and be converted to the logic of development of literature itself.

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