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Paper代写:Development of psychology

2018-05-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Development of psychology讨论了心理学的发展。心理学一门研究人的心理活动的规律的科学。虽然心理学是一门年轻的学科,但它充满了活力,其理论和实践的发展与应用给予人类巨大的财富。在今天,心理学称为最为普遍的应用学科之一,心理学的研究不仅丰富了人类的知识,增加人类对自身的了解,而且其理论、方法和技术可以直接运用于社会生活,促进社会发展与社会和谐。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

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Since the 20th century, psychology has gradually penetrated into the field of economics. First, a large number of psychological principles and behavioral research results have been applied to economics. The behavioral economics, called "economics of psychology", has come into being and is attracting more and more attention. The school of thought of cognitive psychology and behavioral psychology provides a sufficient scientific basis for economics to examine human economic behavior. Referred to as "the psychology of economics" of behavioral economics, stripping the traditional economics assumes that rational people bright coat, advocates the analysis of the behavior should be based on the behavior of real psychological mechanism, not based on subjective prior assumptions.

Behavioral economics theory of behavior analysis and economic operation rule of the organic combination of science, psychology and economy, to discover current economics errors or omissions in the model, and then fix the mainstream economics on human's rational, self-interested, complete information, consistent lack of the basic assumptions of utility maximization and preference. Unlike traditional economics, the behavioral economics of psychology involves people, including people's cognition, emotion, behavior and personality, not just the economy of things. Behavioral economics emphasizes, the analysis of the behavior should be based on the behavior of real psychological mechanism, not based on subjective prior assumption, and the psychological mechanism of individual behavior is a kind of individual process, cannot be replaced by others, so the individual has become one of the basic characteristics of individual behavior. Behavioral economics advocate using rational process instead of a substance, and is committed to in the price, income and other economic variables affects the economic puppet back into the rich humanity, make economics studies the science of behavior.

Second, in the market, consumer psychology research is also widely used. Starting from the consumption subject, study the behavior rule of consumers purchasing and using goods and services; Study consumer attitudes, emotions, hobbies, and decision-making processes; Study a series of social, individual and institutional variables that affect consumer behavior; To study the product characteristics of consumption and the reaction of consumers to product characteristics; And research the current situation and dynamics of market demand, targeted development should be marketable products and so on. Psychology makes modern marketing activities full of vitality and makes the realization of social production purpose more targeted.

The end of the 20th century, psychological method was introduced to the industrial production activities, such as Taylor's early work time study, Jill bray thought mine and Jill thought couple action analysis, and then research on the operation of the conveyor belt production, etc., are the classic work of industrial psychology. In the hundred years of psychological development, many psychology schools have contributed to the theory of industrial psychology. From the classical psychophysical method, the study psychology of the reaction, to the contemporary cognitive psychology, the signal awareness theory, all have had a profound influence on the industrial psychology. The holistic view of gestalt psychology emphasizes the shape and basis of perception, and it is a prerequisite for the identification, pattern recognition and costume design of industrial psychology.

Industrial psychology is an applied theory applied to the field of industry, and how to use psychological methods and results to solve problems in industrial or economic fields. It mainly studies the behavior patterns and psychological basis of the people in the work, and USES psychology to study the requirements of each profession; Use tests to select workers and arrange jobs; Best practices for planning and utilization of human resources; Develop training programmes to enable the most effective development of human resources; Determine the best working conditions; To study the most reasonable form of management organization; Study motivation, adjust the collaboration between workers and managers. Industrial psychology emphasizes to explore the behavior of people at work and have basic knowledge of the cause of this behavior, but also emphasizes some known human behavior in the actual application of knowledge, to better meet the needs of industrial or financial institutions and workers.

First, in the middle of the last century, engineering psychology was formed. Advocates of labor tools to be modified and design and make labor tools designed to adapt to the human physiological characteristic, psychological to ensure the best working conditions, make the project is reliable, the operator easily, improve efficiency. The psychological worker's hard work, not only accumulated in records and have prominent information of scientific value, and in the use of psychological mechanism made communication between people and machine equipment and adapt to each other, in the guarantee of a large system reliability and high efficiency on the premise of made outstanding contributions. The results of cognitive psychology and the methods of objective analysis of human psychological processes are applied to solve the automatic control system and large defense projects, and have achieved remarkable results. With the development of a series of innovations in industry, and the development of cybernetics, information theory, bionics and other sciences in the field of science, engineering psychology has entered the system research. To man - machine - environment system as the object, the research system of human behavior, as well as the interaction between people and machine and environment, the engineering design and match the people's physical and mental characteristics, so as to improve system efficiency, and to ensure the safety of human, and able to work effectively and comfortably in the system. Cognitive experimental psychology has become the theoretical basis of modern engineering psychology. Today, engineering psychology is working to expand the human-computer system into a more comprehensive system of human-machine - environment - society.

Secondly, management psychology is the branch of industrial psychology which applies the knowledge of psychology to the analysis, explanation and guidance of individual and group behavior in the management activities. Behavioral science management theory is the management psychology initiation stage, its foundation is headed by a social psychologist at Mayo a group of experts on the famous "hawthorne experiment", "social person" hypothesis is proposed. They believe that material incentives alone cannot guarantee the mobilization of workers. Good interpersonal relationship, favorable social conditions and work efficiency have closer relationship. In addition, they propose the role of informal organizations in groups. Modern management psychology mainly studies the individual characteristics of people related to organizational behavior, such as motivation, ability, sexual orientation, etc. The group characteristics of people, such as group classification, human and organization interaction, etc. Leadership behavior characteristics, such as leadership style, leadership evaluation and training, etc. Organizational theory and organizational change, such as organizational model, organizational change and organizational development research, etc. The study of quality of work and life focuses on improving the working environment, enriching the work and enlarging the staff, so as to improve the productivity.

In addition, the branches of modern industrial psychology are gradually increasing, including management psychology, labor psychology, engineering psychology, personnel psychology and so on. Whether the working environment is suitable for the safety, health and comfort of the guarantor, and ensure the high efficiency of production; Working environment whether can fit the needs of physiological, workers whether psychological needs are met, getting the attention of people, people with psychological method implementation content of enrichment and expansion, reduce the simple and repetitive work, improve the work itself to the person's significance, increase the workers' satisfaction, got satisfactory results. Personnel psychology in improve the level of people's motivation, improve training methods, to make scientific evaluation and selection and appointment of people, as well as the professional design and personnel arrangement, etc., have played an important role, as well as scientifically formulate relevant personnel management system provides the basis.

Psychology entered education in the late 19th century, and education psychology became an independent discipline. The western education trend in modern times tends to build the pedagogy theory on the basis of psychological research results, which is the precondition for promoting education psychology as an independent discipline. German psychologist helbart has a pioneering role in the establishment of education psychology. Hull baht in the teaching theory, divides into the teaching of the education teaching and the education teaching two kinds, the former refers to ethics, moral, the will, the cultivation of personality, the latter refers to impart knowledge, the skill intellectual instruction activity, he believes that these two aspects of education activities should be based on the psychological theory. Sandike published "education psychology" in 1903, and explained the concept of learning in detail in the school situation, which was regarded as the real beginning of the modern education psychology. Contents include human nature, learning psychology, individual differences and the three main reasons. He proposed three laws of study and individual difference theory, which became an important subject of education psychology research.

The theories of behaviorism, gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis of psychology have had important influence on education. Influenced by the geformat school, education began to attach importance to the status of "insight" in learning, and it was no longer restricted to trying mistakes, stimulation and reaction, etc. The behaviorism theory urges the educational circles to pay attention to the study of human behavior, and pay attention to the influence of environment on people's psychology. The freudian psychoanalytic school has given education a renewed focus on conscious research, especially subliminal and subliminal problems. Meanwhile, the role of emotion in education and teaching process is emphasized, and mental health knowledge is introduced into education and teaching process.

The early education psychology focuses on the study of psychological research and study law, and mostly focuses on the problems of intellectual education. With the increasing importance of education to human's all-round development, it has paid more and more attention to the cultivation of moral behavior, moral emotion and aesthetic emotion. In 1947, the American psychological association set up a committee to plan education psychological research. It was believed that the research tasks and objects of education psychology should include eight items: education evaluation and measurement. Characteristics of child development; Special children and their education; Education method for learning psychology; The study of special subjects; Study counselling and mental health; Teachers' personnel and teachers' behaviors that facilitate learning; Education psychology.

Modern education psychology research generally focus on: human growth and development, including genetic and environmental, the general growth and development, the basic theory of the social and emotional development, motivation, intelligence, sexuality and interest, as well as the individual difference and so on; Learning, including the nature of learning, factors affecting learning, motivation, skills, reasoning and problem solving, attitude, learning of special subjects, and transfer of training; Personality and adaptation, including emotions, students and teachers mental health, special children, character, and social activities; Measurement and evaluation, including basic principles of measurement, measurement of intelligence and sexual orientation, measurement of learning, measurement of adaptation, and application of measurement results; The methods and techniques of education psychology, including the scientific research and statistical techniques of education, and the research methods provided for teachers.

One of the trends of modern education psychology is to gradually turn to education process and students' psychological discussion, and also pay attention to the improvement of teaching methods. People paid close attention to the teaching material, teaching methods reform research, especially on the cultivation of students' creative ability, through the improvement of teaching methods, to develop students' intelligence, promote the development of creative thinking, has become a popular education psychology research. Many education psychologists have put forward various Suggestions of cultivating creativity, research on a lot of creative subject, teaching advocates the discovery learning, encourage children's imagination, curiosity, personality independence, etc, are all focus on the reform of the teaching. For example, skinner, a behaviorist psychologist, has developed a program teaching machine based on the teaching machine designed by others. The characteristics of the teaching machine is students can according to their abilities to set the pace, determine the progress of learning, to get feedback from the machine, the machine automatically according to the degree of students' learning adjustment problem and the difficulty of learning content. Today the computer-based self-teaching method originated from this program teaching machine. Program brought great influence on teaching methods, teaching movement in a very long period of time, those who designed on the basis of the operating conditions reflected the popular teaching courseware, skinner timely strengthening thought still has proven to be effective in the teaching practice, and is welcomed by most of the teachers, the program also affects the teaching material of teaching thought. Until now, both teaching materials and teaching methods can see the shadow of program teaching. Another development trend of education psychology is to pay more attention to the social psychological factors in teaching. With the deepening of the social psychology research, many education psychologists started from the perspective of social psychology, the school and class as a social situation, pay attention to the study of social psychological factors affecting the teaching. If we use social psychological theory to study the motivation of learning, we try to use the method of creating some external pressure or unbalanced state to urge students to produce the desire for reform. People begin to pay attention to the social psychological problems in the form of teaching organization. For example, the psychologist Rogers argues that a warm teacher-student relationship should be established in classroom teaching, so that he emphasizes the use of guided discussion method to teach. He believes that there are three basic conditions for learning to develop advanced level: empathy; Second, unconditional positive attention; Third, harmony or sincerity. The introduction of education theory and practice in psychological science not only makes education a new face, but also takes a substantial step towards the people-oriented education goal.

In short, in the 20th century, the development of psychological science has made great progress. It has proved to the world that it is not only a young basic science, but also a widely applied science. In addition to the above areas, in almost any area of socio-economic activity, people began to inject psychological science ideas and methods. For example, the relationship between environmental psychology research environment and human psychology and behavior; Sports psychology researcher when engaged in sports psychological characteristics and the law of the people to participate in all kinds of sports, in the aspect of personality, ability and temperament and sports influence on personality traits; To study the psychological characteristics of the personnel involved in the teaching and training of sports and sports, such as the psychological characteristics of sports skills.

Psychological research not only helps to enrich the human knowledge, increase human understanding of their own, and its theory, method and technology can be directly applied to social life, promote social development and social harmony. For more than a century, application has been the vitality of the development of psychology. The United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) lists psychology as one of the key development disciplines of the 21st century, and some people believe that "the 21st century is the century of psychology". Psychology has become the key development of the construction of the discipline in the new century, the main reason is that its application scope is widely involved in all areas of human activity, the application of psychology to produce a good social benefits. A great contribution to psychology in different sectors, is of great theoretical significance and practical value, marks it gradually becomes a combined with modern frontier science development one of the most closely disciplines, and for the work of human modern life one of the most widely used disciplines.

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