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Paper代写:A Discussion of the Battle of Midway

2018-03-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- A Discussion of the Battle of Midway,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中途岛战役。中途岛战役开始于194264日,在此期间,美国海军成功击退了日本海军对中途岛的攻击。中途岛战役是第二次世界大战的一场重要战役,也是一场著名的以少胜多战役。当战争结束时,它已经被视为一个转折点。由于日军在海战中战败,使美国掌握了太平洋战区的主动权。

Battle of Midway,中途岛战役,英国论文代写,paper代写,论文代写

The battle of Midway began on June 4, 1942, during which the US Navy succeeded in repelling the Japanese Navy's attack on Midway Atolls. Midway battle is an important battle of the Second World War, but also a famous battle in which the United States Navy defeated Japanese navy with a force inferior in number. When the war ended, it was already regarded as a turning point(Crooms 1).The Japanese were defeated in the naval battle, giving the US military the initiative of the Pacific Theater of war. In this article, it is to discuss the reason for the final victory of the United States and the significance of this battle.

Japan had an absolute military advantage over the US in the battle of Midway. In addition, because Japan believed the overwhelming strength of the fleet, so it also sent a part of the troops to attack the west of the Aleutian Islands in the north to protect the north wing, and contain the US military. In order to carry out this great offensive war on Midway, the combined fleet decided to invest the maximum force that can be mobilized. The ships were more than 200, including battleship aircraft carrier, cruiser, destroyer, submarines and aircraft. The crew's technical and tactical levels of the two sides cannot be compared. A lot of Japanese crews on the aircraft carrier of "Akagi were veterans and experienced officers (Parshall, & Tully 7). They had experienced a lot of wars in the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean. At that time, Japan used the "zero" fighter in the world is second to none. It was the first carrier-based fighter which can best its land-based opponents (“Zero | Japanese aircraft”). The US Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor was suffering a huge loss, and thus the strength was extremely weak. The US was at a disadvantage both in the number and offensive capabilities. Compared with Yamamoto, the new commander of the US Pacific Fleet Nimitz was only able to gather three aircraft carriers and 76 warships together.

In the Battle of Midway, the loss of 4 large aircraft carriers has greatly weakened forces of the Japanese army. During the outbreak of the Pacific War, the Japanese had 10 aircraft carriers, of which six were large-scale ship, and 4 were light ship. Although Japan’s 20-minute bombing on Midway has destroyed some of the island's military facilities, it did not achieve the intended effect. On June 3, 1942, the participating forces of the Japanese fleet have prepared the offensive position. Yamamoto and others got the information that in this area there was no US aircraft carrier, and they were in the Solomon Islands, which was far away. The next morning, in accordance with the scheduled plan by the Nagumo command, the first round of attack on Midway began as the main task of the mobile unit. 108 Japanese aircraft left the carrier and flew to Midway. At this time a variety of United States aircraft which was formerly parking on the island was flying into the sky to meet the enemy, as a result of the intelligence information prior to the attack. As the maneuvering forces of the Nagumo were attacked by the United States aircraft, this made him no doubt the second attack on Midway. But the deck of the 9 3 aircraft carrying torpedoes and armor-piercing, they want to attack the enemy’s warships, rather than land targets. Nagumo ordered the unloading of the aircraft torpedoes and armor-piercing, and loaded with high-explosive bombs. But less than 20 miles northeast of the sea, the US fleet came. The news to Nagumo was a great surprise, as he did not expect the US fleet to come so fast. So there was no manpower or time to safely store bombs that had been unloaded on the aircraft that had prepared for the second attack on Midway, and many of them were with fuses. When the Japanese aircraft went back to the ship refueling, the US Douglas Dauntless bombers came and dive bombers from the clouds to the "Akagi", and "Kaga”. Within six hours, another two carriers in their fleet had been destroyed as well (Lambert). At that time, three mother ships completely became the target of US aircraft attack. 3 Japanese ships immediately were shot and caught a fire, combined with a bomb explosion on the aircraft carrier. The Battle of Midway Island Pacific War marked a major turning point. And with a huge loss of so many important military resources, Japan was forced to change from the strategic offensive into strategic defense, and the United States shifted from strategic defense into a strategic counterattack.

The main reason that Japan suffered a defeat in the Battle of Midway was the mistakes of Japanese’s military strategy and wrong response of Nagumo. It has been argued that the commend decision of Nagumo caused the defeat of Japan(Parshall&Tully , XXVI).  When the American fleet suddenly appeared, Nagumo’s plan was disrupted and caused his indecision. Just as Andrew Lambert---a Professor of Naval History said, “Nagumo’s indecision turned the battle” (Lambert and “King’s College London - Professor Andrew Lambert”). But such mistake must be understood within context. There were the strategic and institutional factors and the operation was lacking strategic direction of the Japanese military (Parshall&Tully , XXVI, 19). Midway is located about 2,080 km northwest of the Hawaiian Islands, east of the International Date Line. It consists of Sand Island and East Island in the atoll, covering an area of 4.7 square kilometers. The island is located in the middle of the Pacific route, whose strategic location is very important. Thus, it is important military bases and transportation hub of the United States in the Central Pacific region, but also the gateway and outposts of US military in Hawaii to keep a close eye on the Japanese fleet. It is essential to defend Pearl Harbor. Thus, for Japan, his war of Midway has two main objectives: the first one is the occupation of Midway as an air base for a close surveillance of Hawaii's US forces; the second is to induce the rest of US Pacific Fleet and wage a decisive battle and destroy it, which are the most important aims. Because of this, Japan's implementation of the war plan is very hasty. Yamamoto was confident of the advantage in numbers and quality, and can destroy the American carrier fleet (Lambert). From the outbreak of the Pacific War to the midway battle, there was about six months of large-scale operations. However, Nagumo was withdrawn and pessimistic during the planning phase(Parshall&Tully ,19). It was also because of the initial victory of the war that Japan just paid attention to how important Midway was but ignored the indispensable conditions to overcome the other: a detailed understanding of each other in terms of other’s preparation and conceals their own combat plans. Without knowing the situation well, the battle has begun.

By contrast, the United States has a great advantage in the warfare on intelligence, which is precisely the key in the battlefield. However, the intelligence information to help Nimitz’s final victory a lot. Nimitz’s intelligence was under the command of Colonel Rochester, who is the expert of communications and intelligence analysis of the Japanese army and is responsible for deciphering the communication code. Fortunately, in January 1942, the US military found the Japanese JN-25B codebook from the sunken Japanese submarine salvage, which makes the deciphering of Rochester get a leap of progress. To the end of April, the US military has been able to understand most of the communication secrets of the Japanese navy. Before the battle, the Americans had known about 90 per cent of the plan (Lambert). After figuring out the Japanese operational plan, Nimitz decided to concentrate all the troops in the midway northeast sea, look for opportunities to give a surprise attack on the Japanese fleet from the flank. At the same time, Nimitz greatly strengthened the defense of Midway. The submarines of the US Pacific Fleet also were sent to the surrounding waters of Midway. In addition, the United States sent in a timely manner a large number of aircraft, anti-aircraft guns and other military materials to Midway, in order to strengthen the island's defense and attack power. The information obtained brings the key tactical advantage to the United States. Having known the weaknesses of the enemy's strategy in advance, Admiral Nimitz was able to concentrate his limited naval force against the enemy's actions one by one. The information the US have collected is the main reason leading to operational failure of the Japanese army.

To sum up, despite the military advantage, Japan loses the Battle of Midway as a result of ignorance of information and strategic mistake, which makes it became a turning point of Japan’s strategic defense in the Pacific War of the Second World War.

Works cited

Crooms, Hubert R. "An Unsinkable Carrier: The Midway-Based Forces and the Battle of Midway." (2011).pp.1-2

Lambert, Andrew. “BBC - History - World Wars: The Battle of Midway”.2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_midway_01.shtml

“King's College London - Professor Andrew Lambert”. kcl.ac.uk.2016

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/warstudies/people/professors/lambert.aspx

ParshallJonathan B. and Tully, Anthony P, Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Potomac Books.2007

“Zero | Japanese aircraft”. Britannica.com.2008

https://global.britannica.com/technology/Zero-Japanese-aircraft

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