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Paper代写:Air pollution

2018-02-06 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Air pollution讨论了空气污染的问题。随着工业化、城市交通和人民生活的发展,空气污染的问题也越来越严重了。空气污染主要来源于工厂废气、汽车尾气和人们的生活活动,它不仅破坏了臭氧层,还给人们带来雾霾和酸雨,严重影响着人类的生存环境和健康。要想解决这个问题,政府就必须加强空气污染防治的投入,开发新的清洁能源,提升人们的环保意识。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Air pollution,空气污染,paper代写,代写,essay代写

1. Introduction

As the development of industrialization, urban transport and people’s life, the air problem has been plaguing human beings. Air pollution has a direct impact on both the ecological environment and human health. There are many tragedies caused by air pollution, the haze in China is one of them. Factories cannot lose “good will” for profit, and human also can't just consider the happiness of the majority but ignore the misery a few people suffer, so it requires the government, enterprises, society and individuals together to reduce air pollution.

2. Impact on Society

2.1  Sources of air pollution

The main factor affecting the quality of air is the process of urbanization, and the sources of air pollution are more, but mainly concentrate in three directions, following are the details combined with China's air pollution.

The first is the industrialization. Industrial waste gas contains a large number of harmful fumes, sulfides, nitrides and carbides, these components make air quality decline through industrial emissions, also these substances are not easy to spread, and the main component stays in the form of gas for a long-term. To observe the recent pollution of the city in China using the AQI evaluation standard (chart1), the Illustration1 shows that severe pollution areas are mainly concentrated in the most industrialized northern and coastal areas (Sherpa, 2013), especially the pollution index has reached 714 in Beijing, the number already is out of the range of AQI. The industrialization development is so fast, so the price is also huge. What’s more, the polluted areas are concentrated together, which indicates that the emissions of pollutants will have a certain degree of proliferation, and then it will impact the neighboring cities.

Illustration1: Map of air pollution in China

Source extracted from the website http://globalsherpa.org/china-air-pollution-health-environment/ on 9 May 2017

The different colors represent different pollution levels, and its meaning is shown in chart 1.

Chart1: AQI evaluation standard

Source extracted from the website https://www.travelchinaguide.com/climate/air-pollution.htm on 9 May 2017

The second is the exhaust pollution from urban transport. With the improvement of people's lives, trains, aircrafts, ships, cars and other means of transport have become an indispensable part, transport vehicles need to burn coal, oil and other substances, and then it will produce a lot of waste gas which that air can’t break down quickly. With the development of Chinese economy and the increasing of Chinese income, more and more people buy cars, in 1985, only a small amount of cars, and in 2005, there are almost 30millions of cars (illustration 2). The dust and gas from cars and trucks increase with the increase of the car,capacityof the environment to process these emissions can’t be compared to the growth rate of the car, which will undoubtedly exacerbate air pollution.

Illustration 2: The increasing of cars in China

Source extracted from the website http://globalsherpa.org/china-air-pollution-health-environment/ on 9 May 2017

Third is the human life activities. For example, the process of cooking and heating will produce a lot of fuel through the combustion of flue gas, and then, when people burn garbage, it will produce a lot of gas, which then enters the air and affects air quality(ESchoolToday.com, 2008). For Chinese, the most important source of the pollution is coal. From the beginning of 2009, China's coal consumption is soaringon a straight line(Illustration3), which is influenced bynot only the development of industrialization, but also the residents’fire coal. Especially in the winter of northern areas, there will be a large number of coal-fired heating, which increases the demand for coal, and will undoubtedly make air pollution more serious.

Illustration 3: Fossil fuel demand in major consuming regions

Source extracted from the website http://globalsherpa.org/china-air-pollution-health-environment/ on 9 May 2017

2.2  Impact of air pollution

(1)Impact to the ecological environment

Pollution has a certain damage to ozone layer. A large number of refrigerants and chlorofluorocarbon gas produced during people’s life and industrial production that greatly destroy the ozone layer and weaken its ability to block ultraviolet radiation.

The carbon dioxide produced by coal combustion and gas emissions generated by car filled with the Earth makes a greenhouse effect. The excessive greenhouse gas keeps the Earth's temperature rising, and “currently carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend” (Socha, 2007). The glaciers have begun to melt and are increasing at a certain rate each year that will result in a change in the ecological environment of the Earth.

There are a large number of sulfur dioxide, sulfide and other acid gases in air can mix with the car exhaust emissions--nitrogen oxides in a short time, and then acid rain will come. Acid rain has a huge harm to plants, and will lead to the reduction of agricultural production, the erosion of buildings, and the death of a large number of shrimp.

These are some of the impact of air pollution that the global all face, for China, the more prominent problem is the haze, the following figure (Illustration4) is the distribution map of haze weather in China, which shows that now almost half of China is in the haze. In some cities, almost one-third of days in one year are in the haze, such as Zhengzhou. According to statistics, in 2013, there were only five days no haze in Beijing. The haze is composed of dust, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, organic hydrocarbons and other particles in the air. The main reason is the two points mentioned above, automobile exhaust and coal combustion, which explains why the haze is particularly serious in the autumn and winter, as people burn a lot of coal to keep warm(TravelChinaGuide.com, 2016).

Illustration 4: Distribution map of hazy weather in China

Source extracted from the website https://www.travelchinaguide.com/climate/air-pollution.htm on 9 May 2017

(2) Impact to human health

First of all, acid rain can make urban drinking water in chemical reaction, then cause a greater threat to human health. Second, human respiratory inhalation of air pollutants harms human body, such as upper and lower respiratory tract diseases. For example, “when exposed to ground ozone for 6 to 7 hours, scientific evidence show that healthy people’s lung function decreased and they suffered from respiratory inflammation” (Theworldcounts.com, 2014).

Now, Chinese “levels of the pollutant in the air are comparable to Japan in the 1970s when air pollution was a major problem there” (Jeffrey, 2008), and “Air pollution is killing about 4,000 people in China a day” (Theguardian.com, 2015). May be China has the world's largest number of deaths due to air pollution. Moreover, lung cancer is the main cause of death currently in China. According to "China Daily", the released data from Beijing Cancer Research Association show that in Beijing, lung cancer cases rose 56% from 2000 to 2009. So does respiratory diseases, 26% of people died because of respiratory diseases, but in the United States, the percent is only 2% -3%.

It can’t be underestimated that serious haze has serious impact on people, according to the statistics of Municipal Health Bureau in Beijing, thetreatment of patients in Pneumology Department of hospital will increase by 2-5 percent every time it is a severe haze of the weather. Over the past 30 years, the smoking rate of China's public has been declining, but the prevalence of lung cancer has increased more than 4 times. It must have a certain relationship with the increase of haze days.

3. Ethical Dilemma

3.1  Kantian Theory

Kant's “categorical imperative” emphasizes the general acceptance of self-discipline and moral principles (Velasquez, 2006). For human beings, no matter for air quality or for other environmental issues, they should keep a protective attitude, which is the primary task for human beings to maintain their own interests. They should know that man is a part of nature, and the protection of the environment is to protect human beings, which is a universally accepted view. On the contrary, destroying the environment is to destroy their home, which is not in line with moral principles.About the air pollution problem, the main source of pollution is the factory. The factory will pollute the environment, as industrial development will be bound to discharge of wastewater and exhaust gas, if the enterprises increase investment in environmental protection, to treat wastewater and exhaust gas first and then discharge, it will inevitably decrease the efficiency and the income of workers. For most factories, theydo not keep self-discipline,so they destroy the environment for their own interests.

It is not a good will to profit from pollute the environment, now all the world wants to lead a life that man and nature is in harmony, not to improve human life at the expense of the destruction of nature. To sacrifice the environment in exchange for money, and the cost of sacrificing the environment demands the whole society to borne together, this is not the respect for human. To sacrifice environment for the interests of the individual shouldn’tbe considered a moral behavior, the motive is not correct. Only “right intention would result in right consequences” (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017), this is what Kant said about "good will".

3.2  Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is opposed to Kant's theory. It focus on the purpose and resultsof an action (Velasquez, 2006), and not to follow the will of people, but the interests of the majority of people.The utilitarian is concerned with the happiness of the majority, but ignore the misfortune of the few. Industrial development and social progress almost let all people gethappiness, people lead a better life because of the development. Workers can work in the factory to earn a lot of money; students can use a variety of tools to help them learn well; white-collar workers can enjoy cool and air-conditioned office to word with clear mind in the summer, and so on.Factories product almost everything in life for people, energy such as coal make people enjoy warm days even in winter, increased traffic tools such as cars let it convenient for people to travel, and so on, all these are brought by the industrialization, and people are in the enjoyment of this life. But because of the air pollution caused by industrialization, and then the pain of the disease is brought to mankind, many people suffer from diseases such as lung cancer because of pollution, but compared to so many people in the world, there really are only a small part of people who suffer from pollution. If according to the utilitarian view, air pollution seems to be moral.

4. Recommendations

“The best way to protect air quality is to reduce the emission of pollutants by changing to cleaner fuels and processes” (Jerry, 2017), so people should find a way to reduce emissions of pollutants. Cooperative governance is a good choice, which emphasizes the collaboration of government, social organizations, enterprises, the community and the individual, and achieve effective results through co-governance approach.

(1) Carry out overall planning and rational distribution. Industry is still the leading one of economic development, a country's development is inseparable from the industry, so in the future, government should have a reasonable layout of the industry, so that the process of industrial production can reduce the air pollution.

(2) Improve people's environmental awareness. People will produce harmful gas in their production and life, so to improve people's environmental awareness is an effective way to prevent and control air pollution. For example, people can use solar energy, recycled products and so on (Rinkesh, 2009).

(3) Strengthen investment in the process of the prevention and treatment of air pollution. The funds are an important guarantee for the effective promotion of various control strategies. On the one hand, the state should strengthen research funds about the energy-saving and emission reduction. On the other hand, government should strengthen the integration of social funds, and social groups and organizations should increase investment to air pollution control, such as using environmental protection equipment.

(4) Formulate the relevant law. The government's legislation is the most powerful weapon for the implementation of environmental governance, which provides institutional security for air pollution control.

5. Conclusion

Air pollution caused by industrial development, urbanization process and human life activities is inevitable, and it is also an irrevocable fact that air pollution impacts on the ecological environment and human health. Society needs to develop and people need to enjoy the fresh air, clean water and green hills. So it is essential to set government, enterprises, society and individuals as a whole and control air pollution through cooperation.

Reference

Socha, T. (2007). Air Pollution Causes and Effects. Health and energy, 11.

ESchoolToday.com (2008). Air pollution - Causes of Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://eschooltoday.com/pollution/air-pollution/causes-of-air-pollution.html

Theworldcounts.com. (2014). How Does Pollution Affect Humans? Retrieved fromhttp://www.theworldcounts.com/stories/How-Does-Pollution-Affect-Humans

Jeffrey Hays. (2008). AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA. Retrieved fromhttp://factsanddetails.com/china/cat10/sub66/item392.html

Theguardian.com. (2015). Air pollution in China is killing 4,000 people every day, a new study finds. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/14/air-pollution-in-china-is-killing-4000-people-every-day-a-new-study-finds

Taylor & Francis Group. (2017). Kant’s ethics. Retrieved fromhttp://documents.routledge-interactive.s3.amazonaws.com/9781138793934/A2/Moral/KantsEthics.pdf

Global Sherpa. (2013). Beijing Air Pollution Exposes China’s Health & Environment Risks. Retrieved from http://globalsherpa.org/china-air-pollution-health-environment/

TravelChinaGuide.com. (2016). China Air Pollution. Retrieved from https://www.travelchinaguide.com/climate/air-pollution.htm

Jerry A. Nathanson. (2017). Air pollution control. Retrieved fromhttps://www.britannica.com/technology/air-pollution-control

Rinkesh. (2009). 41 Super Easy Ways to Stop Air Pollution. Retrieved fromhttp://www.conserve-energy-future.com/41-super-easy-ways-to-stop-air-pollution.php

Velasquez, M. (2006) Business ethics: Concepts and Cases (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

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