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Paper代写:Aesthetic Ideology

2017-12-04 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Aesthetic Ideology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了审美意识形态。文艺审美反映的是一种区别于一般反映的特殊反映,它有自身的特殊规定性。文艺审美意识形态也是一种整一的理论形态,也有自身完整的内涵。审美意识形态是一个具有规定性的复合结构,它是意识与无意识的对立统一,是情感与认识的对立统一,是无功利与功利的对立统一,是内容和形式的对立统一等等。

Aesthetic Ideology,审美意识形态,英国论文代写,paper代写,论文代写

The aesthetic ideology of aesthetic ideology, as a breakthrough in ideology since the new period, has been endorsed by most of our literary theorists. It is called the first principle of literature and art by the mainstream academia in our country. The so-called first principle, also known as the first rule, it is the foundation of all other problems in literary and artistic theory, which regulates and restricts the value orientation and basic path of all other literary theories. Aesthetic ideology can become the first principle of literary theory, because it is a whole category, in revealing the inherent characteristics of literature and art has enough coverage, can simultaneously reveal the object, subject and function of literature and art characteristics.

The explicit and systematic elucidation of the theory of aesthetic ideology is the important contribution of Marxist literary theory to the 20th century Marxist theory of literature and art, and it is the important achievement of the 20th century Marxist theory. In order to understand the process of the formation, birth and development of this principle for a century, this paper intends to do some research into it. In carrying out this kind of investigation, we pay special attention to its research question, its methodological starting point and its theory level.

The ideological theory of the essence of literature and art, which has produced important influence in Russia, USSR and China for a long time, was first brought forward by Plekhanov. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the students of Marx and Engels, such as Merlin, Lafargue and Plekhanov, began to engage in the study of Marxist aesthetics and literature and art, among which Plekhanov's achievements and influences were greatest. Plekhanov died in 1918, he did not see Marx's treatise on literature and art, but only based on the basic principles of Marxism on the independent thinking of literature and art, put forward many glorious judgments.

Until the the late 1920s, people thought that Marx had no systematic theory of literature and art, and the founder of Marxist literature and art was Plekhanov, not Marx. Lunacharski, who presided over the Russian-Soviet culture, education and science for a long time, said in the 1929-1930 report, "as an artist and critic of literature, Plekhanov", "It is no exaggeration to say that the foundation of Marxist art is precisely laid by Plekhanov." Indeed, in the writings of Marx and Engels, there was only a handful of fragmentary insights, because they did not have the idea of how to apply the principles of dialectical materialism to the arts. "This view was quite common at the time.

The study of the ideological theory of literary essence proposed by Plekhanov cannot depart from the historical conditions that produced it, that is, we should take into account the characteristics of the times that Plekhanov lived, and the tasks that the times posed to him. In order to counter the influence of Mach, Kantianism and German Social Democratic Party on literary theory, Plekhanov focused on how to apply Marx's historical materialism to literary and artistic issues.

Plekhanov expounds The theory of literature and art according to Marx's preface to the Critique of political economy, the basic problems of social existence and social consciousness, economic foundation and superstructure. In 1903, the second international leader, Kautsky, titled "Critique of Political Economy", published a part of the draft of Marx's "capital". In the preface to the Critique of political economy, Marx put forward the theory of social structure: "People in the social production of their own lives have certain, inevitable, not with their will for the transfer of the relationship, that is, with their material productivity in a certain stage of development to adapt to the production relations." The sum of these production relations constitutes the economic structure of the society, that is, the legal and political superstructure is erected and has a certain social consciousness form to adapt to the realistic basis. The production mode of material life restricts the whole social, political and spiritual lives of the process. Not People's consciousness determines people's existence, on the contrary, people's social existence determines people's social consciousness. ”

Marx's theory of social structure includes four levels: productivity, economic foundation, superstructure and ideology. Plekhanov on this basis, put forward the famous "five factors formula". He divides Marx's ideology into two forms, one is social psychology, the other is the ideology, highlighting the social psychology of this "intermediary" role, which is very insightful, very meaningful. Plekhanov said: "The art of any nation is determined by its mentality;" Its psychology is caused by its situation, and its situation is ultimately constrained by its productivity and its relations of production. The concept of "the middle link" of "Social Psychology" has opened up a new way for us to effectively explain the ideological problems including literature and art. "It is a creative play to Marx's theory of social structure, and this contribution is remarkable." ”

It is not only the theory of social structure in the introduction of Marx's critique of political economy, but also the reflection of Lenin's materialism and Shing. Lenin began writing "materialism and Shing" in April 1908 and was published the following May. This book and "philosophy note" embodies the vivid characteristics of the dynamic materialism reflection, which pushes Marxism to the new height of history in the field of epistemology. In the 19th century era of Marx's life and Lenin's life in the early 20th century, Marxist philosophy faced different tasks. Lenin and Marx's field of concern is different, Marx's "Political Economy Critique" Introduction "belongs to historical materialism, and Lenin's materialism and Shing" belongs to dialectical materialism epistemology. Lenin said: "Marx and Engels ... The special attention is made to the development of materialism, that is to say, what they pay special attention to is not materialistic epistemology, but materialistic view of history. ”

The application of Lenin's reflection to the theory of literature and art began in the 1930s. The study of Lenin's literary thought in the 30 's the first Lunacharski for "The Encyclopedia of Literature", "Lenin" and "Lenin and Literature", he expounded the important position of Lenin's literary thought and expounded the significance of reflection. According to reflection, literature and art reflect the ideology of social life. Some theorists start from the introduction of the Critique of Political economy, others from materialism and Shing; Some from the historical materialism, others from the materialist reflection of the theory, but they converge to the essence of literary and artistic ideology.

Marx uses the concept of ideology in the neutral meaning, but in the definition of the ideological theory of the essence of literature and art, ideology refers to the ideology of class. Plekhanov pointed out that the general theory of literature and art is the reflection of life is not very clear. In order to understand how literature and art reflect life, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of life, while class warfare constitutes the "one of the most important drivers" of the mechanism of this life in the civilized nation, "only by examining this impetus, paying attention to class warfare and studying its varied changes, It is only with a little satisfaction that we can ascertain the ' spiritual ' history of civilized society: the process of social thought itself reflects the history of each class of society and its mutual struggle. Literature and art constitute an important part of the "spiritual history" of the civilized society, and also reflect the historical changes of the social classes and their mutual struggles.

Once established, the ideological theory of literary essence has a great influence and is widely spread. Lunacharski wrote: "All art is ideological, it comes from a strong feeling, it makes the artist seem to stretch out, seize the hearts of others, expand their control of these hearts." The Literary Encyclopedia, published by the Soviet Union in the the 1930s, defines literature as: literature is the special form of "class ideology", which "realizes the task of class self-confirmation through image expressing class" ... "Gorky said:" Literature is the ideology ——— the social classes and groups, the feelings, the opinions, The manifestation of an attempt and hope ——— visualization. It is the most sensitive and faithful reflection of class relations. ”

The ideological theory of literary essence has already had an important influence on our country. Zhou's "Marxism and Literature" was published by the Liberation Society of Yanan in 1944, which is an important achievement in the translation of Marxist literary theory in Chinese literary circles. The book is selected by Marx, Engels, Plekhanov, Lenin, Stalin, Gorky, Lu Xun, Mao Zedong and other people about literature and art of the article fragments and related remarks. After the publication of the book in Yanan, Dalian Popular Bookstore, Anton Northeast bookstore and other units out of the reprint. The title of the first chapter of the book is "Literature and ideology", in the concept of Zhou, literature and art is of course the ideology of class.

The concept of "aesthetic ideology" appeared first in Vorovsky's writings. Plekhanov, Lunacharski and Vorovsky are often regarded as the early Marxist aesthetics of Russia and the Soviet Union. In the article "Gorky", Vorovsky uses the two concepts of "political ideology" and "aesthetic ideology". In his view, the "political ideology" of Russia at that time already possessed a form that fully conforms to the demands of the workers ' movement, and the "aesthetic ideology" has not yet been established. In his words: "The content of aesthetic ideology can only be a vague and joyous presentiment and expectation." Here, Vorovsky implies the idea of literature and art as "aesthetic ideology".

In the aesthetic writings of the Soviet Union, the concept of aesthetic ideology is clearly used to refer to the essential characteristics of literature and art. "Art is an ideological phenomenon, and it is an ideological phenomenon of aesthetic aspects," wrote Yeguo Rove, a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and a member of the USSR's Faculty of Science in 1959. Art as an ideological phenomenon, its special essence lies in this "aesthetic aspect".

In 1975, Brove wrote in the book Aesthetics: Questions and Controversies, "pure ideology does not exist in principle." Ideology only exists in all kinds of concrete manifestations ——— as philosophy ideology, political ideology, law ideology and aesthetic ideology ———. The author's translation is often cited by proponents of aesthetic ideology. It is obvious that literature and art is aesthetic ideology.

In the 1990, the British scholar Terry Eagleton published "Aesthetic Ideology", Terry Eagleton's aesthetic ideology, refers to the general ideology of the special aesthetic field, which is connected with ethics, religion and other fields, for the general production of the final decision. It is a part of the "cultural ideology" in the general ideology, including the value, meaning and function of aesthetic. Literary art is a part of aesthetic ideology.

In the decades since the late the mid 1980s, the views of Chinese scholars on the aesthetic ideology of the essence of literature and art are undoubtedly influenced by Soviet scholars. Bing, one of the owners of the theory of aesthetic ideology, wrote: "I think it is very useful and convincing to explore the essence of art in the Soviet Union's aesthetic school." The discussion of "Aesthetic school" affirms the ideological nature of art and bases its theory on Marxist philosophy. At the same time, not stay at the level of the general philosophy, but from the level of philosophy to enter the level of aesthetics, clearly put forward and answer the artistic distinction between the aesthetic characteristics of other ideologies, which is undoubtedly to the essence of the art of the study to advance a step The critical step of the Soviet ' aesthetic school ' in the artistic essence is enlightening to the construction of Chinese literature and art. ”

Chinese scholars have made further argumentation on the essence of literary aesthetics. Literary aesthetic reflection or literary ideology is by no means "aesthetic" and "reflection" or "aesthetic" plus "ideology". Aesthetic reflection of literature and art is a special reflection which differs from general reflection, and it has its own special stipulation. The aesthetic ideology of literature and art is also a whole theory form, also has its own complete connotation. Aesthetic ideology is a kind of compound structure with stipulation, it is the unity of opposites of consciousness and unconsciousness, the unity of opposites of emotion and cognition, the unity of opposites of no utility and utility, the unity of opposites of group tendency and human commonality, the unity of opposites of false nature and authenticity, the unity of opposites of content and form These arguments enrich the content of aesthetic ideology of literary essence.

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