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Paper代写:The Consumerism

2017-12-04 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The Consumerism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了消费主义。消费问题是普遍存在的、与人类生活息息相关的问题。无论过去、现在还是将来,人类都离不开物质和文化需求的满足,离不开消费。但消费主义不是从来就有的,而是社会发展到一定历史阶段的产物。消费主义在人们心中会确立这样一种理念:人生的意义和价值可以在我们拥有的东西中发现。

Consumerism,消费主义,英国论文代写,paper代写,论文代写

Marx's evaluation of a social system or phenomenon has two main scales: one is the historical scale, the other is the moral scale. The so-called historical scale, whether conforms to the objective law and the historical inevitability, whether conforms to the majority person's interest, whether is advantageous to realizes the human development as the standard. The so-called moral scale refers to the use of certain moral norms, moral concepts as a means of determining the value of a thing has no, correct and size standards. The historical scale and the moral scale are the basic ways to understand and grasp the world, and also the embodiment of the human subject spirit. Through the use of double scales, human transformation of history, the transformation of reality, to promote social progress and the all-round development of people. Therefore, from the perspective of the ultimate goal of human all-round free development, these two scales are consistent. However, in real life, these two kinds of scales often present two law backs. "This fundamental consistency and the reality of the reverse requires us to evaluate a social phenomenon consciously use dialectical thinking, adhere to the historical scale and the unity of moral standards." ”

The problem of consumption is a common problem which is closely related to human life. Regardless of the past, present or future, human beings can not leave the material and cultural needs of the satisfaction, inseparable from consumption. But consumerism is not always there, but the product of social development to a certain historical stage. Since modern times, the development of science and technology in Western countries has made material production grow exponentially, social production is relatively surplus, need consumption to maintain, pull and stimulate the further development of production, people gradually ended the "production" as the center of the Society, into the "consumption" as the center of the era. At this time, the purpose of people's consumption is the nature of the means, consumption is no longer a simple economic behavior, but has become a way of life and cultural behavior. At this point, consumerism arises. French sociologist Jean Baudrillard in the "Consumer Society" in the book on the definition of consumerism, that is, the purpose of consumption is not for the actual needs of satisfaction, but in the constant pursuit of the created, stimulated out of the desire to meet.

"Many years ago, if a person is uncomfortable, do not know how to be good, he may go to church, maybe go to revolution, etcetera." Today, if you feel uncomfortable and overwhelmed, how can you be free? Go spend! " In the perspective of consumerism, man is the consumer, and the value of life lies in the creation and profligacy of wealth, and there is no other choice. People in the endless consumption of the "I spend, therefore," the credo, and through consumption to strengthen the belief in this creed. In summary, the basic idea of consumerism is expressed in the following aspects:

In the field of material consumption, consumerism takes possession and enjoyment of material products as the first meaning of self satisfaction and happiness, and it never stops stimulating people's needs, and the value of human beings is located in the enjoyment and satisfaction of a single material life. People do not care about the consequences of consumption, regardless of the cost of the environment and resources, disregard the economic capacity of individuals, even for consumption can be desperate. In the field of cultural consumption, the trend of "cultural" and "commercialization" of the commodity is intensified, and the essential difference between the cultural text and the commodity tends to melt. With the popularization of new media, a large number of cultural works in the direction of life, entertainment, consumer development, a large number of entertainment programs to serve the audience's senses and instincts, pornography, murder, violence has become a lot of film and television works theme, funny, amused, does not make sense of the creation of many works. In this case, people no longer pay attention to reason, lofty, only focus on pleasure and stimulation, cultural consumption should have metaphysical transcendence and ascension into the form of indulgence and depravity.

According to Maslow's hierarchy theory of needs, people's needs have the level of high and low, higher demand is based on the lower demand, people only to meet the lower demand before the pursuit of higher levels of demand. In the traditional society, because of the lack of material information, people in the consumption choice is to meet the needs of the physiological needs, security needs and the demand for ownership, and the need for self-esteem and self-realization is not important in the consumption choice. Today, due to the richness of material information and the differentiation of homogeneous products, to make consumers to the consumer choice of personalized and self-realization of the pursuit of possible, the consumption choice is to a large extent to meet the self-esteem and self-realization, and not just not even to meet the physiological, security and attribution of low-level needs, This situation is particularly evident in conspicuous consumption, personalized consumption and fashion consumption.

Consumerism establishes the idea in people's minds that the meaning and value of life can be found in what we have. Therefore, consumption has become the source and symbol of personal equality, happiness, freedom and happiness. Consumerism, for example, promotes equality for all through consumption. People can not only use consumption to erase their social status, income, power and other aspects of the differences and discrimination, and individuals can improve their identity and status through consumption. At the same time, consumerism takes wealth and consumption as the standard of people's happiness. The modern media uses the network, the advertisement, movies, television, etc., will be beautiful, romantic, magical and other cultural characteristics of the ingenious integration with the commodity, creating and consumption itself is not necessarily linked to the various intentions, so that people feel that this is the so-called happy life, so as to continue to stimulate people into the dream of "happiness" The pursuit of life.

After the emergence of the western developed countries, with the process of globalization, with the unstoppable momentum to spread and spread to other developing countries, even China such a "prudent" traditional people have been affected, some people began to abandon the thrifty, rational consumption concept, To identify and practice the concept of consumerism and the way of life. Here, the global expansion of consumerism is not to say that consumerism, people immediately have a consumerist life, the important thing is not what people have, but what people want, what constitutes the basic meaning and pursuit of people's lives. The correct view of consumerism requires us to adhere to the unity of historical scale and moral scale, not only to see its historical inevitability and progress, but also to see the moral limitations and harmfulness brought by it.

To look at consumerism from the historical scale is to examine it from its generation, rather than just to measure it with the present standard. The typical period of consumerism is the era of capitalist market economy. Market economy as a decisive means of allocating resources, what enterprises produce, and how much they produce are determined by the market. In the market economy, individuals as independent subject to engage in production activities, individual labor and products only through market exchange and consumption will be recognized by society, the value of the individual can be realized. In this case, the value of human beings is transformed into the value of things, the relationship between human beings and things, the relationship between goods and goods, the domination and domination of human beings inevitably occur. However, the development of consumption and people's own development is precisely in this period of realization.

Consumerism is the phenomenon of social productivity development to a certain historical stage. In traditional society, the low level of productivity development, the lack of means of production, therefore, the ruling class to preach asceticism and hierarchical system, so that ordinary people satisfied with the basic survival needs, while the very few privileged to engage in material enjoyment and spiritual activities. From the essence of "consumption", the "consumption" of the real meaning can be opened only after satisfying the "consumption" for survival. After the Industrial Revolution, machine production completely changed the purely human, animal and natural forces of the production model, the progress of production technology to make large-scale commodity production possible. Into the 20th century, the Ford doctrine was widely used, mass production to make large-scale consumption become a reality, history into a "rich era", consumerism emerged. In this case, people's consumption ideas and consumption patterns have also changed significantly, the concrete manifestation is in two aspects: first, the consumption of industrial products is no longer monopolized by the minority or dominant group, but by the public as the object, the public has become the target of the industrial system, some people call it "the democratization of consumption"; On the other hand, in consumer society, " The connotation of the masses has also changed, it originally refers to the society in the majority of people engaged in manual labor, at this time, the income is relatively stable and has been expanding the middle class is also included in the trend. As a result, the social lower class as a luxury thing in the rapid spread of the whole society, so that the past luxury has become a necessity, a mass consumer society quietly formed.

The realization of the value goal of human "free individuality" is the precondition of consumption satisfaction. Marxism believes that human history "is a history of the development of human power." Marx took the human personality as the clue, inspected the human development process, and combed the role of consumption in different stages of human personality development. In the social stage of "human dependence", by the restriction of the level of productivity development, people sell the surplus goods outside the household consumption, the majority of the products are consumed by family members, people's production ——— consumption structure is in a narrow and closed state. In this case, people cannot break through the limitations of their activities, there is no way to put other people's social production capacity into their own, which determines that the relationship between the individual and others can only be political or blood dependency relationship, people are tied to a certain family and political community within, human personality expression and the realization of independence is not discussed. In the phase of independence based on "The dependence of things", consumption and production began to break up and consumption was realized through currency exchange, thus, people's reliance on commodity exchange and currency replaced the social dependence based on blood relationship. This mode of production has freed people from the narrow community of the shackles, broke through the various forms of personal relations, formed an independent individual and individual personality, human independence, freedom and equality of the realization of the material basis. From this point of view, consumerism is the inevitable phenomenon of the specific stage of human development process, which is not only the inexorable trend of historical development, but also the significance of historical progress.

In the consumer society, suppressing people's consumption desire is not only an anti-humanity, but also unrealistic. Can not suppress people's desire for consumption, but may lead people to the pursuit of material consumption to the enjoyment of spiritual consumption, and the symbolism and symbolic characteristics of consumerism itself contains the possibility of its turning to spiritual consumption. One of the main characteristics of consumer society is that symbol system and visual image play an increasingly important role in controlling and manipulating consumption interest and consumption fashion, "meaningful consumption is a systematic symbolic manipulation behavior." On the one hand, people show their taste, identity, status and individuality through consumption, on the other hand, people's consumption products themselves symbolize a certain meaning, mood, beauty, grade, mood and atmosphere. Thus, the symbolic character of consumption reveals its inherent paradox: the more the pursuit of material consumption, the more it has nothing to do with the human physiological needs. Thus, the symbolic and symbolic features of consumerism frame the bridge to spiritual consumption. "Without a symbolic system, the human life will be limited to his biological needs and actual interests, and will not find a path to an ' ideal world ' ——— the ideal world is open to him in all its aspects, from religion, art, philosophy and science. "There is no sign, there is no spiritual life, no spiritual life, no one to the reality of transcendence and human development."

To judge consumerism from the moral yardstick is to look at consumerism according to the moral principles and moral concepts of today's society. From this point of view, the greatest moral flaw in consumerism is that it pursues not the need, but the desire, because the human needs are limited, but the desire is endless. To satisfy the desire of unlimited consumption will inevitably impact the traditional consumption concept, affect the atmosphere of the whole society, and ultimately endanger the survival and development of mankind.

In ancient society, both China and the West advocated thrift, moderation, moderation and balanced consumption view, against extravagance, profligacy, greed and indulgence. Ancient Chinese thinkers generally advocated the consumption concept of extravagant Cong. Confucius in "The Analects of Confucius," pointed out: "The propriety and luxury, Ning", "Saving and Love", advocated big to govern the country small to hold ceremony should be frugal, save, against extravagance and waste. "Zuo Zhuan" also mentioned: "Frugality, virtue of the common also, extravagance, evil of the Big also", the "thrifty" and "extravagance" as a judge of the moral nature of the important standards. Taoism requires people to "see the desires, less private", advocating people out of the bondage of material desires, the pursuit of inner peace and harmony. Han Fei-zi, a master of Legalist school, pointed out in the famous "Han Fei zi" that "extravagance and sloth are poor, but the force and frugality are rich", and frugality as an important measure of the rich and the poor, the main Zhang, the conservation. Mohist School is to increase thrift to the height of the rise and fall of the country, in the "Mozi," put forward "thrift is advocated, adultery is dead" concept.

In the Western Ancient society, the dominant idea is that the value of life is the happiness of virtue or the pursuit of God, not the pleasure of satisfying the desires. Even in the early days of capitalist development, Protestant ethics, by preaching asceticism, punishing extravagant laziness, emphasizing ascetic secular toil and self-denial, accumulated primitive capital for capitalism and made diligent, hardworking and frugal an important part of capitalist spirit. When consumerism emerged, the pursuit of taste, fashion, identity symbol of luxury consumption replaced the traditional life ethic of frugality, moderation of the concept. At present, with the further development of the globalization process, especially the emergence of new media, consumerism is more rapid and convenient to the world than ever before, with the help of computer network, film, TV, advertisement and so on, and it is gaining more and more legitimacy and control in people's daily life. Not only does the majority of the developed world emulate the consumerist lifestyle, but some in the developing world are worshipping, yearning for and pursuing this way of life. In this case, "I spend, therefore," and "No consumption on the decline" of the credo of people's values and lifestyles, the traditional thrifty, moderate consumption view is completely abandoned and subversion.

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