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Paper代写:Plato's Theory of Ideas

2017-10-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Plato's Theory of Ideas,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了柏拉图的理念论。柏拉图哲学主要继承了苏格拉底的哲学思想,其哲学核心概念是“理念”。柏拉图是第一个把“理念”作为哲学术语的人。在柏拉图看来,理念具有多种不同的含义,是超于感性无法用语言具体表述的。依照理念论,世间万物都有一个代表其同类事物的“原型”存在,即所谓“理念”。

Plato's Theory,柏拉图的理念论,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

Plato's philosophy inherited the philosophy of Socrates, the core concept of philosophy is "philosophy", the concept and the axis of Chinese philosopher Laozi put forward the idea of "Tao" is the same. Plato's concept of hyper-sensibility has undergone a change from the early stage of "divided and said" to "the Theory of General", which has a profound influence on Western philosophy.

The concept of philosophy is the core concept of Western traditional philosophy, from Plato, the Western philosophy is based on it, set up a seat straight to the sky of philosophy building. So where does Plato's "idea" start from? What is its connotation and significance?

The ancient Greek philosophers before Socrates were all searching for the path of the philosophy of nature, and the Heraclitus of the Ionian faction thought: "The world order is not created by any God or man, its past, present and future are always eternal fire, burning in a certain sense, and extinguishing in a certain sense of propriety." "Pythagoras thought the world is the origin of the number, and Democritus that the atom is the origin of the world."

Early Greeks did not distinguish between rational thinking and existence is different, this state has continued until the wise, the wise have begun to distinguish between imaginary existence and objective concrete existence, recognizing that there is a difference between thought and existence. Socrates is different from the wise man, he sees the transcendence and objectivity of rationality itself, and has objective object. Socrates believes that the perfect principle of the existence and development of all things is "good", "goodness" within each person's mind, the freedom unchanged, it is objective, natural. Socrates ' famous words: "Know yourself" that is, to seek rationality from the person itself, to know oneself, to find the perceptual world from the person himself to be understood, so that the same kind of perceptual things can be universally unified interpretation, it is precisely because of this, Socrates is the first in ancient times to realize the existence of the "common" philosophers, At the same time as the rational thinking Way of Socrates, the teleology was introduced into philosophy, which laid the foundation for the subsequent Plato idea.

In Socrates there has been a sense of return to reason, but because there is no theory of support, still can not completely build an independent concept of the world. Plato separates the conceptual world from the perceptual world and extends the universal definition of Socrates in the field of ethics to a wider range of areas. Hegel once said, "It is Plato who developed and prompted the common phase from the appearance." Socrates refers to the "common-phase" in the face of human consciousness, his consciousness first reached the abstract. "Goodness" is the universal common purpose of the world and the individual, "good" is a specific principle of its own, but the specific provisions of this principle have not been expressed, but Socrates has been directed to the consciousness of himself. In Socrates, the thought that only for the reflection of the subject was developed by Plato as the "idea", that is, the objective thing, it is a universal thought, but also a "real existence".

Plato was the first person to put "idea" as a philosophical term. In Plato's view, the idea has many different meanings, he once said "on the subject, I have not written about the book, and will not write." These words are a reflection of Plato's philosophical career, and the concept is beyond sensibility and cannot be expressed in words. "The idea is not to see with the eyes, nor to use the feeling to judge, can only use reason to comprehend." The ability to distinguish between beauty and ugliness, truth and illusion, goodness and evil is called rationality. The world of ideas is a sense of rationality. ”

According to the theory of ideas, everything in the world has a "prototype" that represents its similar things, that is, "idea". For example, a segment, the world must have an absolute line of existence, all the lines must be its derivative of the facsimile. The absolute line segment can only exist in the spiritual world, the real world segment is the "idea phase" of the division. So is the perfect thing, such as justice, virtue, courage. Pure idea is the highest end of the concept, the closer to the high-end, the more true, and vice versa. Let's take a look at it, from the top up, the first and the second belong to the world of ideas. These things are not seen with the eyes, but with the brain. If we think of what we think is the highest, then the line, circle and other things listed next to the pure idea of the second level of ideas. We can never draw a true line segment, the painting is only the concept of the world line of imitation just, meaning imitation. Because you draw a line no matter how fine, it always has the width, that is, you draw is only a very slender rectangular, and the real concept of the world line is a true line, we can never draw out! The third kind of idea is the real world of animals and plants and production, such as puppies, flowers, beds. The fourth category, needless to say, is the shadow of these objects, the shadow behind us, the shadows of something that is reflected on the wall, all the static pictures we draw in the art class, and so on are all the fifth ideas, and these are false. In other words, the real world with the eyes of the things are false, all the real things in the concept of the world.

There are many limitations in Plato's theory of early theory, in his "Parmenides chapter", through the dialogue between the old Parmenides and the young Socrates, Plato reveals his "divided" difficulties, the topic is whether the idea is a sense of individual points, the main contents of the discussion are: first, there are not strict one by one correspondence, Its scope of application is not all the sense of things, the most certain applicable object is only ethical behavior. Second, there is not part of the relationship with the whole. We know that the original intention is to "share part", to show the relationship between the part and the whole. However, whether the way of the individual is divided into the form of the whole, or the understanding of the division as a part of the phase, can not explain how the matter is similar to the classification. For example, the "big" phase is divided into many parts, each part is smaller than the "big" form of the whole, each of these parts can be said to have more than the "big" small phase, but they are still called the big thing, so the paradox is that there is a "big" small nature still has a "large" nature. Thus, there is clearly no part of the relationship with the whole. Third, there is no association between "ideas", if the concept and the real world of things have a certain corresponding relationship, if these entities correspond to the concept of a drawer, then the concept and ideas, that is, the drawer before the relationship, there is a flaw. Four, second, the idea of not to explain the movement, static concept does not explain the movement of things. So, to solve these problems, does Plato deny the existence of the idea? No, whether the idea he wants to solve is individually divided. Its major transition, mainly in the "Parmenides" chapter. This dialogue is the most difficult to understand the most speculative in all Plato's dialogues, but contains the most important philosophical thinking results. Hegel called Plato the most famous masterpiece of Dialectics. Plato changed from "The Theory of Ideas" in "Netherfield" and "country" to the later "theory of General", whose basic view was that "idea" was not isolated but combined, and thus turned to the dialectics of the common phase. It is the first change of principle in the development of Plato's theory of ideas.

In "Parmenides", Plato has become aware of the fatal problem of separating ideas from specific things, but how to solve them?

Plato followed the undeniable phase, only to find the problem, and to pay attention to the new research mode of thinking, that is to use the idea to engage in reasoning and argumentation. This way of thinking must put forward a hypothesis on the opposite side of the idea, which can be realized by repeated argument. This method can be used to study dynamic and static, life and extinction, existence and non existence. This is one of the most comprehensive and meticulous forms of human logical argumentation. Following the above principles, Plato reformed the concept of the previous period. By discussing the "one" of the Baroque, the problem of solving the core problem was whether the common people were isolated or combined. The "one" exists or does not exist through 8 groups of inferences. If the concept of an isolated understanding, then the idea can not exist, can not speak, can not be recognized. Then the idea loses its meaning. The whole inference begins with an isolated "one", and finally draws an isolated "one". Finally, it comes to the conclusion that any idea must combine its opposing ideas to make sense, and this idea can exist.

Plato's philosophical transformation began in the "Parmenides chapter", completed in the "Wise" chapter. The "wise" article stands taller because it involves the fundamental problem of the relationship between "existence and" and "not exist", "is" and "no". Plato sought to ascertain in what circumstances the dream "does not exist" also "exists", and does not violate the logic law. In this article, Socrates became the insignificant figure, the master wants the object to become the student of the Baroque, a "Elia" of the Gentiles, but criticized and refuted the name of the Palestinian gate.

In the "Wise" chapter, with the help of the Gentiles Plato expressed his ideas: even if there is nothing, as long as there is something that is not physical, it is even possible to admit that they are the smallest part of existence, and it is necessary to recognize that there is a form in nature that exists without form. It is true that any thing that affects the power of a person, or something that is affected by it, no matter how short the time of action, how insignificant the effect and effect, is, so the definition of existence is simply power. and in "existence", it is impossible to deny the mind and soul, and if they are absolutely motionless and unreasonable, the definition is that the meaning of existence is movement and being driven. Here Plato combines "existence" with "movement" and "change", and no longer divides the world into two worlds, and Plato no longer regards "idea" as a lifeless, lifeless world, and movement is the essence of all things. Plato also realizes that the movement change cannot deny the stillness. Because if everything is in motion, then how is the existence of the mind possible? So stillness is also inevitable. "Static" and "dynamic" are the opposite, but all exist, they are not all movement, not all static, this is the emergence of a third thing "exist." Then there is the combination of "move" and "static".

Plato in the early ideas, the world in half, that is, the concept of the world and the real world, the former can not rely on the latter and objective existence. In the content has the objective invariable connotation, the beauty idea is different from the big idea, each idea is the independent existence, he is very objective, does not depend on the person's thought and the consciousness, also does not depend on any outside the thing to exist. If the world is a book, this book is so wonderful, then "only the source to", this "living water" is the concept of the world.

The idea is beyond the perceptual thing, with the naked eye is invisible. Then must use the eye of thought to "look", the rational thought of employing to understand, if only by virtue of the senses absolutely can not recognize the hyper-perceptual concept of the world. Not that we first saw the specific individual beds, then through induction and abstraction of the concept of the bed, but first with the "existence" of the understanding of the main point, so that the bed from the vague feeling of showing up, and then through the concept of the existence of the bed to get a concrete understanding, and make the bed different from the chair. This is a conceptual thing in the hyper-perceptual realm.

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