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Paper代写:The Silk Road

2017-08-03 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The Silk Road,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了丝绸之路。“丝绸之路”是德国地理学家李希霍芬赋予汉代中国和中亚南部、西部以及印度之间以丝绸贸易为主的交通路线的名字。但是,随着学术研究的深入、考古发掘的进步,丝绸之路的含义越来越广,范围也越来越大。可以说,不同时代有不同时代的丝绸之路。而且,丝绸之路上的文化交流是双向的。

Silk Road,丝绸之路,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

China's east and South is the sea, the west is desert, high mountains, the north is Gobi, forest, in a relatively closed geographical environment, not conducive to communication with the outside world. However, since ancient times, China has not closed itself, through land and sea Silk Road, with the outside world has a wide range of links. The Silk Road undoubtedly plays an extremely important role in the historical process of cultural exchange between East and west.

The "Silk Road" is the name of the German geographer, Richthofen, which gives the Han and South Central Asia, the West and India, the main route of silk trade. However, with the deepening of academic research and the progress of archaeological excavations, the meaning of the Silk Road is more and more wide and wider. Indeed, the Silk Road existed between China and the west before the Han Dynasty, it is not only limited to China's dealings with Central Asia and South Asia, but also to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Southeast Asia and other places connected by Western Asia, the Mediterranean Sea and the Silk Road. Trade goods are not only silk, but also a variety of handmade products, plants, animals, art products. "The Silk Road", like silk, is sometimes a strand of silk, stretching out, some lines clear, some intermittent, sometimes like a large net, covering the vast, always appear gorgeous tapestry. Therefore, the "Silk Road" cannot be regarded as a rigid one, it can be said that different times have different times of the Silk Road.

The basic trend of the Silk Road in Han and Tang Dynasties: road from Changan or Luoyang, through the Hexi corridor, the Tarim Basin, the more Pamir, into Central Asia, Iran, Arabia and the Mediterranean Sea, from the southeast coast, through the South China Sea, Malacca Strait, to India East Coast, then to the Persian Gulf, Arabia, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, and even North Africa east However, the Silk Road is a living road, because of politics, religion, nature and other factors, in different historical periods also choose different trends. For example, northern and Southern dynasties, occupy the central Plains north of the Xianbei rulers, not only with the Southern dynasties in a hostile state, but also with the north of the soft Khan country often Binglong opposite. We have found in the unearthed documents in Turpan a record from 474 to 475 years of the Shiri Gaochang kingdom, which escorts the country's emissaries, just a few lines of text tells us that at that time from the Southern Dynasties Dynasties, the Tarim Basin of Yanqi and the son of the country, northwest India's Uguan and the Brahmin country in India, the messenger to the Mongolian plateau of the Soft Khan court, to go through Gaochang (Turpan). The document outlines the route of the north-south and east-west intercourse in the 5th century century, which means that, although Binghuangmaluan, the Silk Road connecting East Asia, North Asia, Central Asia and South Asia remains open.

In some areas of the Silk Road, such as the narrow western regions, namely, the Tarim Basin and Turpan basin in Xinjiang, especially the fate of some oasis kingdoms in the western regions, is closely related to the smooth Silk Road. Because the transit trade of Silk Road is an important income of these oasis kingdoms, the prosperity of culture also depends on the spread and infiltration of the civilization of East and west. Therefore, these Oasis kingdoms must vigorously maintain the smooth road, and for the Silk Road commercial trade and cultural exchanges to provide convenient, with a view to firmly control the Silk Road in their own hands.

Historically, powerful forces around the Silk Road have also wanted to be able to control the transportation routes that have both economic and military value. Tang Dynasty from the 14 years into Gaochang, to celebrate three years out of Western Turk Khan Country, the entire Central Asian and western regions of the Kingdom of sovereignty to the Tang Dynasty. Tang Dynasty has set up Anxi, North Court to control the western Tianshan Mountains and south, and in accordance with the Central Plains system to establish Feng Hou system, to ensure the smooth Silk Road. Some of the documents unearthed in Turpan provide us with a lot of business travel on the Silk Road records, but also recorded a strong national system for the maintenance of traffic routes to make strenuous efforts.

Many towns along the Silk Road have contributed to the maintenance of the Silk Road and the exchange of East-west culture during different historical periods. We can list a series of names, such as the Khotan of the western Region Silk Road, Lou, the Kucha, Yanqi, Gaochang, Hexi Dunhuang, Wuwei, and central Plains Guyuan, Changan, Luoyang, and even some of the more remote towns today, in a certain historical period also played a very important role in the Chinese and western traffic history. For example, located in the northern end of Shaanxi Province, the Jingbian of the city, in the Northern Wei dynasty in 439, the west of the north cool regime, through the thin bone law (Ling State), Xiazhou (MSC), along the southern edge of the Ordos desert to the Northern Wei Capital Cheng shortcut, the city became the Western world and the Cheng contacts on the joint point.

The Silk Road is a living road, as long as the silk path is active, along with the country and the town is also active; the Silk Road changes with the political changes of different times, so the different towns play the historical role of the particular times.

The greatest contribution of the Silk Road to human civilization is to communicate the exchanges between different countries and nationalities, and to promote the cultural exchanges between East and west. When the relationship between the state and the nation is good, cultural exchanges through the official private channels, unimpeded; sometimes the state and the state, the nation and the nation have been severed because of political or other reasons, but the culture is mobile, not because of the hostility of the regime completely severed the exchange, cultural factors will be entered or spread through other channels. In both cases, many good examples have been left in history.

From North Korea to Sui and Tang dynasties, China and Persia have maintained a very friendly relationship, and the envoys of both sides continued. In addition to political solidarity, there is a colorful cultural exchange landscape, whether as a material and cultural representative of the gold and silver, or as a spiritual culture of Nestorianism, Manichaeism, from Persia to China, enriched the Chinese traditional culture. The two cultures of Persia and China produced in the Tang Dynasty, such as the Persian patterns produced by the Tang people, The imitation of gold and silver products, and from China to Xinluo, Japan.

The far-reaching extent of cultural exchanges in history is often unexpected, and we lament the great feats of Zheng He's voyages in the Ming Dynasty, don't forget that there is such a "Zheng He" in the Tang Dynasty, his name is Yangliangyao. Yangliangyao in Zong Yongyon ordered to the Arabian Peninsula black clothing, he from Guangzhou, take the Sea Silk Road, after more than three years of time, complete contact Big Food, attack the political mission of Tubo, return to the Tang Dynasty. Yangliangyao hired to make big food more important results, is to bring back to the Tang Dynasty the precious and complete sea Silk Road diary, this should be Jia recorded in the "Huang Huashida ji" from Guangzhou to the bound (Baghdad) route.

Yangliangyao from the sea to the background of the big food, is because the Tubo by the Tang Dynasty rebellion, captured the Hexi territory of the Tang Dynasty, and to the western regions. Because of the hostile situation of Tubo and Tang Dynasty, political envoys such as Yangliangyao are hard to go to the west by Land Silk Road. In the past, scholars generally believe that the six-year-old Menguun from Tianzhu back to Changan, Sino-Indian exchanges between the total cut off, the late Tang and Five Dynasties, Northwest Binghuangmaluan, there is no record of any contact. In fact, a lot of history has not been recorded in the literature handed down, we can today through the unearthed documents to reproduce some historical truths.   The Chinese and Tibetan documents found in Dunhuang tell us that in the late Tang and five dynasties until the beginning of the Song Dynasty, between the Chinese and Indian monks, through the circulation of Buddhism and other cultural exchanges have not broken, because the Tubo also believes in Buddhism, so the Buddhist monks have not been impeded, they still shoulder the mission of cultural exchange, rushing on the land Silk Road. Silk Road culture is very mobile, not only between China and the West, also through the Sea Silk Road, east of the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago, due to Nara is Cang Yuan and South Korea, Japan, the ancient monastery collection of a large number of examples of this, we also constantly from the ancient books and the newly discovered stone inscriptions to find new evidence.

Cultural exchanges on the Silk Road are two-way. The author makes use of the investigation and collation of the unearthed documents of the western regions for many years, and devotes to discussing the ―― of the spiritual culture to the western regions, which should be the important content of the Silk Road Study neglected by the predecessors.

With the Tang Dynasty's power into the western regions, the Chinese Buddhist Temple system was also established in the western regions, far away from the ruins of Kyrgyzstan-site in the city, there is Wu Zhou period of the big Cloud Temple, some western region officials temple of the three leaders, but also from Chang ' an temple. followed by the Chinese translation of Buddhist, at that time the popular "Great Wisdom Paramita Sutra" "King Kong Sutra Paramita Sutra" Chinese text, are popular in the western regions, and even some of the mainland's Zen classics such as "God will quote", also spread to the distant West Trachimbrod; it represents the Confucian culture of "Chancery Justice" "Classic release" "Cut Rhyme", Taoist "Liu", History "Shiji" "Han Shu" and so on, also copied to the desert oasis; the Tang Dynasty students copybook specimens of Wang Xizhi's "Orchid Pavilion Preface" and " Chantay Huang Post, also become the copybook model of children in western regions. This shows that the most Chinese cultural characteristics of the classics in the western regions of the spread. Although we are now in the far more distant Central Asia, West Asia did not see similar ancient relics unearthed in the Chinese literature, but the Samarkand mural of the Tang Dynasty, Persian and Arabic literature on the Chinese property, process of the record, as well as a large number of porcelain, silk archaeological findings, all illustrate the depth and breadth of the Chinese culture.

With a great deal of archaeological discoveries, the excavation and publication of the epitaph, and the digitization of the manuscripts handed down, we today have a clearer understanding of how the material and religious cultures of Central Asia, West Asia and Europe spread along the Silk Road to the east, especially the importance of the Sogdia merchants who were active on the Silk Road in medieval times. The Sogdia beacon discovered by the Great Wall of Dunhuang recorded the trade network and management mode established by Sogdia merchants along the Silk Road; the Gaochang kingdom unearthed in Turpan is called the price instrument, it shows that Sogdia merchants use the form of transit trade to deal with precious commodities on the Silk Road; Anga, Scun and other North Korea Sogdia tombs unearthed in the tomb and images, showing the Sogdia caravan leader Sapau's daily life scenes, as well as their use of utensils, their songs and dances, feasting scene. All of these allow us to get a deeper understanding of the Sogdia merchant activities on the Silk Road and the Sogdia and Persian culture they bring. After the Sogdia people gradually lost their trade monopoly on the Silk Road in the 9 and 10th century, some oasis kingdoms or local regimes along the Silk Road began to operate traditional transit trade. Records of Dunhuang documents show that the central Plains and the western regions of the kingdom produced silk, is still the Silk Road, one of the best-selling goods, the "Silk Road" name, is worthy.




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