**51due****英国论文代写网精选数学report代写：“ Math 146 End of Quarter Project”，本论文主要阐述的是找到两个同行评议的有趣的研究文章。使用下一页的表格，写下他们使用的统计数据和他们所得出的结论。**

Your Mission: Find two peer-reviewed research articles which are interesting to you. Using the sheets on the next page, write about the statistics they used and the conclusions that they drew.

Further Information

Both articles must have been published in peer-reviewed journals in the year 2006 or afterward. (No pre-prints or newspaper/magazine articles).

One article should relate to your chosen professional field. (For example, if you’re studying nursing, it should be health-related.)

The other article should be in a different area, not related to your professional field, which you care about.

Type your responses using the sheets on the following pages.

I am not having you show your reports to other students to get feedback from them, but this is a very good idea and you should strongly consider doing so in your time outside of class.

Staple your pages together, with the grading sheet on top.

Helpful Tips

You can often get much of the information you’ll need from the abstract.

PubMed has a lot of full, free articles.

Use your own words to describe the research question, methods & conclusions, and try to make them understandable to a normal person. My measurement of this will be whether I can grade it without thinking too hard about the technical aspects.

Be as specific as possible with the name of the statistical technique. Just writing “p-value” isn’t going to cut it. Some good answers: “Confidence Intervals”, “Likelihood ratio test”, “ test”, “ANOVA”.

The “methods” section typically includes the nuts and bolts of how the study was conducted. Summarize this, briefly but clearly in question 7. (It is possible we haven’t covered a statistical technique in class – that’s OK, just do your best to understand and explain what you think is going on.)

The Journal Title, Volume & Issue can often be found in the PubMed preview or Google Scholar (click “Cite”). It should look something like:

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 30(5), 565-565.

1) Article Title: Laws of population growth

2) Article Author(s): Hernán D. Rozenfeld, Diego Rybski, José S. Andrade, Jr., Michael Batty, H. Eugene Stanley, and Hernán A. Maksea

3) Article Year: 2008

4) Journal Title, Volume, Issue & Year:

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(48), 18702–18707.

5) Research Question, in your own (plain) language:

1. To find a method to designate metropolitan areas.

2. Figure out whether population growth in different urban deviates from Gibrat's law

3. The relation between city size and population growth.

6) Name of Statistical Technique Used:

Random sampling

Confidence bands

Regression analysis

Power-law scaling

Spatial correlations

Nonparametric regression analysis

Power law distribution

7) In your own (plain) language, what were the methods they used to study the research question?

The authors start by selecting an arbitrary populated cell, then grow a cluster with a population strictly >0, until the population are unpopulated, defined functional relation between population S (t) and time (t).

Next, they investigated Gibrat’s law, which postulates that the mean and standard deviation of growth rates are constant, define the population growth rate of a cluster as, and study the dependence of the mean value of the growth rate, the standard deviation, the averages 〈r (S0) 〉 and σ (S0) are calculated by applying nonparametric techniques. They calculated the annual growth rates by dividing r by the time interval t1 − t0.

Then defined β as the standard deviation exponent and carried out an OLS regression analysis. Next, computing the 95% confidence interval for the exponents α.Finally, expressed the value of the exponent in terms of the 95% confidence intervals as.

8) In your own (plain) language, what conclusion(s) did they draw?

1. The greatest growth rate occurs in the smallest places where there is the greatest risk of failure. A corollary is that the safest growth occurs in the largest places having less likelihood for rapid growth.

2. Population growth for different urban and regional systems at country deviates from Gibrat's law.

3. The result suggested the existence of scale-invariant growth mechanisms acting at different geographical scales,

4. Strong development in an area attracts more development in its neighborhood and much beyond, and small places exhibit larger fluctuations than large places.

1) Article Title: Looking for a break: Identifying transitions in growth regimes

2) Article Author(s): Sabyasachi Kar, Lant Pritchett, Selim Raihan, Kunal Sen

3) Article Year: 2013

4) Journal Title, Volume, Issue & Year:

Journal of macroeconomics, 38(1) , 151 – 166.

5) Research Question, in your own (plain) language:

1. Attempt to identify the timing of shifts in economic growth

2. Search an approach that combines filter and statistical approaches

3. Identify a much larger number of plausible breaks.

6) Name of Statistical Technique Used:

Bai–Perron test

Sequential test

Standard deviation

Breakpoint test

ARIMA

7) In your own (plain) language, what were the methods they used to study the research question?

Firstly, the authors applied to Bai–Perron test by setting up an autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) and then they did the breakpoint test, but they found significant shortcoming with the approach which the up (down) break was limited by the low power of the Bai–Perron test, apart from the shortcoming, Bai–Perron test assumed that any growth break is completely independent of past growth breaks, which was a completely ahistorical approach.

Therefore, they applied to their own approach that identified a significantly larger number of breaks compared to the former one. They used per capita income growth data and took into account past growth episodes in identifying growth breaks and regional factors, any genuine breaks were defined by the magnitude of the change in growth rate before and after the break. Besides, the literature on growth transitions also focus on the distribution of these breaks, making it able to identify more breaks from countries with volatile growth paths, and hence has a larger proportion of breaks from developing countries, compared to the Bai–Perron test approach.

8) In your own (plain) language, what conclusion(s) did they draw?

By using the new approach, it allowed the growth experiences of countries to be classified into periods of growth accelerations and periods of growth. The unified approach identified breaks in economic growth and the periodization of growth regimes and is able to identify a much larger number of plausible breaks in GDP per capita.

Another result from the study is that both Asia and South America have proportionately more up breaks compared to the other studies. In South America, these results in a majority of the breaks being up breaks while down breaks were a significant majority in the other studies.

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