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英国论文代写范文-The government tax gasoline

2017-09-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

本篇英国论文代写范文-The government tax gasoline讲了比起大多数产品,政府的汽油税多于那些拥有汽车和开车更多的汽油,被认为比那些买不起车的穷人更富有。减少对穷人征税的方法是减少福利水平差距,增强社会平等的途径。本篇英国论文代写由51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。


Case 1

The government tax gasoline more than most products because those who have cars and drive more are considered to be richer than those poor people who cannot even afford to buy cars. Taxing the rich more while taxing the poor less is a way to reduce the gap between the welfare levels and to enhance social equality. Apart from this economic reason, gasoline produces pollution, which is a negative externality. By taxing gasoline more, people will have less incentive to use gasoline and will produce less pollution.

The graph on the left showed tax for gasoline and the graph on the right showed the situation for tax on other goods. Quantity before tax is denoted as Q0 and quantity after tax is denoted as Q1. Price before tax is denoted as P0 and price after tax is denoted as P tax. The supply is elastic and more of the tax burden will be levied on the consumers because the demand is inelastic. There are few substitutes for gasoline and it is a necessity for those who drive cars. As shown in the first graph, with an elastic supply, consumer surplus decreases more than producer surplus. The quantity consumed will be further reduced.

I believe that it is a good idea because in terms of economics, those with a higher reservation price on gas will pollute more and pay more. However, those poor or those who do not value gasoline that much will choose to pay less, or not at all if they consume within the limits, and use less. This way, resources are allocated to those who need it most and value it most. From a social perspective, pollution will be reduced because the maximum amount of gas emission is capped with a ceiling. People will pay for the extra emission and this amount of money can be used to treat pollution.

The first suggestion I made is for the government to subsidize the vehicles that uses electricity such as Tesla. For example, there could be no tax at all if you buy an electronic vehicle. When people find it cheaper to purchase an electronic vehicle, they have a substitute and the quantity of gasoline vehicles decreases. The second policy is to reduce the price of bus fares or even make it almost free to ride the bus. Then people will abandon cars in the family and choose to ride the bus or subway instead. The greenhouse gas emission of 1 bus is less than 10 or 20 cars that run separately on the streets. Buses and subways are also substitutes for gasoline cars.

Case 2

Minimum wage is the lowest wage that a firm can give to its workers set by the government. An ineffective minimum wage is when this wage set by the government is already lower than the market equilibrium determined by the supply and demand curves. An effective minimum wage is when this minimum wage is above the equilibrium wage determined by the market. On this graph, quantity of labor before the minimum tax is denoted as Q0 and the quantity of labor after the minimum wage is denoted as Q1. The original wage determined by the labor market equilibrium is denoted as W0 and the new minimum wage is denoted as min wage. The consumer surplus before the policy is the area under the shape W0Eo. The new consumer surplus is the area under W0dfo. The new producer surplus is the area a, c, and min wage. The old producer surplus is AEW0. 

The main argument for the minimum wage is to increase the welfare for some low skilled workers such that they do not have to work very hard while only receiving one dollar a day. The minimum wage made sure that the labor is paid off. Those who benefit most from this policy are those who already have a job that originally paid below the minimum wage.

The main argument against the minimum wage is that the number of workers demanded will be decreased. Firms will be more unwilling to hire people because it is more expensive. In the graph above, the quantity of labor actually hired will decrease from Q0 to Q1, rending some people who originally had the potential of finding a job unemployed. Those who are unemployed lost the most because for them, it is better to have a job that paid only $5 an hour rather than having no job and no income at all.

Although there are loses for those who are unable to find a job once there is a minimum wage, I believe that the government should still implement this policy. At the same time, I believe that other policies such as encouraging one to become an entrepreneur or subsidies to further education should also be there to aid this minimum policy. For those who cannot find a job, they can be their own boss or continue their education so that they can become more competitive in the job market in the future.


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