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英国论文代写范文-Project of Tuition and Enrollments

2017-09-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

本篇英国论文代写范文-Project of Tuition and Enrollments简要说明了高等教育的结构,主要集中在公共部门-纽约州,1999年,据报道,纳入四年制学校的920万学生中有65%将参加公共机构和康奈尔大学的Ronald G. Ehrenberg(2003)。本篇英国论文代写由51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。


A Short Quantitative Project of Tuition and Enrollments at a Public Flagship University

1. A Brief description of the structure of higher education  with a focus mostly on the public sector - in the state of New York

In 1999, 65% among the 9.2 million students enrolled in four-year institutions were

reported to be enrolled in public institutions according to the study by Michael J. Rizzo

and Ronald G. Ehrenberg from Cornell University (2003). And in 2014,  the enrolment of SUNY is 454,839, which is a fall compared to the previous year as the enrollment of SUNY has once reached 471,184 students in the 2009-10 year---- a peak of its enrolment, according to an Albany Bureau Chief called Joseph Spector (lohud.com, 2015).  According to the data updated in July 2016 from Fast Facts – SUNY, the total enrollment of state universities of New York is 442,940, among which the undergraduate enrollment is 402,722; graduate enrollment is 40,218. And the state operated enrollment is 219,942; community college enrollment is 222,998 and technology college enrolment is 26,180. 

 Among all SUNY, most students choose to enroll at SUNY-Albany, a flagship public university.  Its enrolment is 17,178 with 12,908 being undergraduates according to the latest data provided on US News Best Colleges in 2017(US News, 2017). And its enrollment of full-time and part time undergraduates and graduates is 17273 in 2014, 17338 in 2013, 17312 in 2012, 17114 in 2011, and 17615 in 2010. In the year from 2005 to 2007, the number is 17040, 1734, and 17684. To sum up, after 2010 and before 2008, the enrollment of SUNY-Albany remains at the level above 17000 and below 18000. And after 2005, its enrollment peaks at the year of 2008 and 2007 being 18020 and 18204 respectively.  But by contrast, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, another non flagship and a four-year institution public university has an enrollment of full-time and part time undergraduates and graduates from 2015 to 2005 as follows: 2779, 2738, 2480, 2377, 2508, 2821, 2934, 2891, 2828, 2587, and 2590. It can seen that the number of enrollment remain stable at less than 3000 students. And for Herkimer College, a 2-year public college has an enrollment of full-time and part time over the ten years as 3020, 3259, 3215, 3463, 3679, 3774, 4010, 3524, 3328, 3354 and 3549.  More specific, the structure of higher education is unbalanced as SUNY-Albany which is considered as the flagship in this assignment, admits most of students among public universities. 

2. A Description of what has been happening to state appropriations, tuition and student aid of SUNY-Albany

There is tendency of rise of tuition, fees, room & meals from 2013 to 2016 and the rise is more rapid for out-of-state undergraduates. According to the remark in 2015 of Joseph Spector---Albany Bureau Chief, over five years since 2010, the tuition of SUNY-Albany has increased 30%, to $6,470 a year for 2015 fall (lohud.com, 2015). According to the data found on the official website of SUNY-Albany (2016), per credit tuition and fee rates for fall 2016 is divided into two parts: per credit tuition and fee rates for students from NYS and out-of-state undergraduate. For 2016-17 annual costs, the tuition is about $6,470.00 for undergraduate students from NYS, and $ 21,550.0 for those out-of-state undergraduates. And total tuition & fees for the former is &9,263.00 and for out-of-state undergraduates, the number is &24,343.00. It can be seen that the tuition and total tuition & fees for out-of-state undergraduates is about as three times as that of NYS undergraduates. And the room and meals is $ 8,042.00 and $4,900.00 respectively, which is same for NYS undergraduates and out-of-state undergraduates. When all this money is added up, it is $22,205.00 for NYS undergraduates and $37,285.00 for out-of-state undergraduate. In 2015, the tuition for undergraduates within state is the same as the last year but that for the foreign undergraduates are much lower, which is $19,590.00.  In fall 2014 Semester, the tuition is $6,170.00 for NYS Undergraduate and $17,810.00 for out-of-state undergraduates; total tuition, fees, room & meals for NYS Undergraduate is $ 21,703.00 and that for out of state undergraduate is &33,343.00.  In fall 2013 semester costs for NYS undergraduate, the annual costs are $ 5,870.00 in terms of tuition and $20,864.00 when tuition, fees, room & meals are combined. The annual costs for out of state undergraduate are $16,190.00 in terms of tuition and $31,184.00 when tuition, fees, room & meals are combined. 

As for state appropriation, it is reported by Michael J. Rizzo and Ronald G. Ehrenberg (2013) that during the 1979 to 2000 period, state appropriation for most of the public flagship

institutions, has experienced a fall from 42% to 31%. And from the 2010-11 academic years, the New York Gov. David Paterson decided to cut $142.8 million from the central SUNY budget and in 2008, the budget was cut by $146 million (ARCHIVES 2010). Also, 

3. A Description of what has been happening to student enrollment at SUNY-Albany.

As what have been mentioned in the structure of higher education, the enrolment of SUNY-Albany---a flagship university, in 2017 is 17,178 with 12,908 being undergraduates according to the latest data provided on US News Best Colleges (US News, 2017). Compared to the enrolment number of 17273 in 2014, there is not a big fall. But it is worth mentioning that there has been a tendency of decrease of enrolment number since 2010, with 17338 in 2013, 17312 in 2012, 17114 in 2011, and 17615 in 2010. 

As for the composition of students who have been enrolled in SUNY-Albany in terms of areas, and in terms of demographic characteristics like race/ethnicity, income and parental education, it has been a hallmark of diversity of SUNY-Albany. Based on the data from the s official website of SUNY-Albany, there are students of more than 100 nationalities on the campus of SUNY-Albany (albany.edu, 2016). And according to collegefactual.com (2016), SUNY-Albany ranks #347  nationwide in terms of ethnic diversity which is above the national average level. Among the students, 50.7 % are white, namely 6557 students; 16.9% are black; Hispanic or Latino takes account of 13.8%; Asian students are about 8.1%; the race of 3.4% students are unidentified; the rest are students who can be classified into two or three races(collegefactual.com, 2016).  And according to collegefactual.com (2016), about 6.1 % students of SUNY-Albany are non resident alien or students coming from other states and more than 90% of the students attending SUNY at Albany come from within the state. in terms of ratio of in-state students and out-of-students.  It can be concluded that SUNY-Albany do fairly well in terms of diversity of race/ethnicity but performs worse in terms of geographical issue. 

4. A discussion of what happen to student enrollment, and to student composition, at SUNY-Albany over time, with respect to potential changes (or not) in tuition

   With the decrease of state appropriation over the years and increase of tuition and fees, it can be expected that enrollment of student out of state and foreign students at SUNY-Albany over time will continue to decrease to a large degree and enrollment of in state students will remain relatively stable. On the website of lohud.com(2016), there is a remark of SUNY chancellor Nancy Zimpher that student enrollment will face challenge with the cut in state funding and rising tuition rates. 

Public institutions are mostly established or maintained by the state governments. And the funding sources of public institutions include government, society, alumni and other channels, but mainly from the state government financial subsidies. But state revenue is mainly from the residents of the state. For the state's students, the major public institutions will offer tuition discounts, etc.  With the economical underperformance, the government's financial support to the public universities is gradually reduced as the government will continue to reduce the amount of tax revenue.  But in order to maintain a balance of payments, SUNY-Albany will continue to increase the tuition and fees of students outside the state and international students to increase revenue. 

5. A Discussion of my findings in view of the analyses in the papers listed below - the Rizzo and Ehrenberg paper, the two Education Trust publications, and the McDuff paper.

The article by Rizzo and Ehrenberg reach the contrary conclusion with my prediction of student enrollment caused by rise of tuition in the future, and McDuff paper seems to also support Rizzo and Ehrenberg’s thesis. 

Rizzo and Ehrenberg have examined a lot of data of public flagship universities. But it is concluded that they enroll nonresidents to improve institutional quality, or to serve other interests such as tuition reciprocity agreements through tuition reciprocity programs. But some of his sub thesis or reason to support the conclusion is not convincing to me. For example, it mentions the fact that institutions respond to state appropriations slowdowns by increasing both in-state and nonresident tuition for a rebuttal of using nonresident tuition as a source of revenue.  But it fails to mention the different degree of increase for in-state and nonresident tuition. 

In the journal paper entitled Quality, tuition, and applications to in-state public colleges by McDuff, it probes into how college quality and tuition affects a student’s decision of application. It is found that the high-quality and affordable public higher education is often in conflict and there is a two-way interaction between the policy of increase of in state tuition and students’enrollment. Students tend to accept large increases of in-state tuition as long as the university provides a higher quality education, which becomes a sort of incentive for some public university to increase their tuition. This reveals one implicit but important reason driving the tuition of public school: the tolerance and acceptance of tuition rise for the better education of quality. 

6. Suppose you are the “enrollment manager” at SUNY-Albany. What would you do?

If I am the “enrollment manager” at SUNY-Albany, I will try to reach equilibrium between in-state and nonresident students. If there are too many in-state students, it will impact diversity, school revenue and quality of education to some degree by missing some excellent students of other states. But the enrollment of too many out of state students also occupies precious educational resources of in-state students. 

7 how data on SUNY-Albany at U.S. Department of Education’s new College Scorecard website numbers change any of my thinking regarding the above questions

What I most concern about is salary as the whole study is about the rise of tuition. It is $50,100, which is almost $20,000 higher than the national average of $33,400. And the debt of undergraduate borrowers who complete college is $21,490. This means that with the cost of the four year’s debt, one has the chance to get a extra sum of money, equal to his or her debts, than half of his follow citizens, as long as he or she got the diploma. Thus, I found that no matter how tuition of higher education rise, it is worthy of try and it may be rewarding at least financially finally. 


Reference Lists

Archives . (2010). Students fight budget cuts at SUNY Palooza - Pipe Dream.

College factual.com. (2016).How Diverse is SUNY at Albany? Explore Ethnic, Age, Male to Female and Geographic Diversity

Rizzo, M. J. and Ehrenberg, R. G. (2003). Resident and nonresident tuition and enrollment at flagship state universities (CHERI Working Paper #26). Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, ILR School site:

suny.edu. (2016).Fast Facts - SUNY

usnews.(2016).University at Albany--SUNY | University at Albany--SUNY - Profile, Rankings and Data | SUNY Albany | US News Best Colleges


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