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英国essay代写-the Kant’s Theory of Moral Philosophy

2017-10-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇英国essay代写-the Kant’s Theory of Moral Philosophy讲了康德道德哲学的理论内涵和认知逻辑,深入了解康德的道德哲学。康德首先提出善良是最道德的,善良是责任的代名词,所以康德得出了关于责任的三个命题。本篇essay代写由51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。


I agree with the thesis of “Sweatshops and Respect for Persons” by Arnold and Bowie. This article first pays attention to the theoretical connotation and the authentication logic of Kant's moral philosophy, trying to understand Kant's moral philosophy deeply. Kant first proposed the good will is the most moral good, and good will is synonymous with responsibility, so Kant derived the three propositions about responsibility. The third proposition of responsibility is that responsibility is a necessity of conduct that arises out of respect for the law. So what is the characteristic of this law? Kant argued that the moral law was useful in the form of an ordered command and put forward three formulas about the command of the predicate: the universal law formula, the human purpose formula and the self-discipline formula. Among these three formulas, the universal law formula is the highest or even the only moral law and the basis of the other two formulas. Kant's moral theory of human nature and human rights also applies to our modern society. In modern society, from these three angles of the personal,social and legal point of view to illustrate the importance of respect for others; personal point of view: only respecting other people to get the respect from others; social point of view: people living in the same social environment, only mutual respect, social harmony; legal point of view:people is equal to each other, including human rights and legal status. Although the economic and environmental development of different periods of society is different, but people play the most important role at any time, people are material producers and creators of the society, but also the founder and leader of the spiritual society, so maitaining admirable to human obligation is key to maintain society order and healthy.Besides,put respect and guarantee for human rights is the responsibility and obligation that the society, government and operators must bear .

Then the paper re-combs the inner logic of Kant's moral philosophy. Of course, Kant has expounded his theory in his writings, but the Kant's system of moral argumentation is worthwhile to explore deeply. What we need to do in this paper is to examine his logic from the new logical starting point, that is, Moral law and freedom, and to make them related to respect for human rights, and whether all three are free, and on the basis of his logic to re-order. In this paper, the general law of good will and moral law are relative to the respect for human rights are free things, good will is the only line with the command of the three formulas of moral law with the universal law of the property; people can be rationally intuitive to find that good will is the universal rule.Due to respect for the law, people will choose good will for their own action rules, so good will becomes the bound to act as the command of people, which has a certain role in keeping esteem to people. Through the analysis of the general law with good will, we naturally draw the three propositions of responsibility and the three forms of command, the three propositions of responsibility and the command of the three types of command is the inherent law of the good will.“Only in accordance with the rules you also think can become a universal law to act "is the reference to the moral law from Kant; three commands is the freedom to understand the conditions, we can infer the freedom of self-discipline: people choose good will as the law of their own action, which is a freedom of choice. Finally, the critique of reason has new results: the world is divided into two areas of nature and human society, human rational intuition can understand the human society in the free will-good will of universal law and moral law, and thus infer the natural field should also exist the thing, the natural field of things is the natural phenomenon of the foundation, but can not be recognized by human reason, this is rational with the ability to understand.

This paper compares Kant's moral philosophy of esteem to people and analyzes whether admire for human rights can be widely realized in the whole society and how to achieve it. We can have a more comprehensive understanding of the two, or even to conceive of the possibility of respect for the realities of human rights that are widely realized throughout the world by comparing moral philosophy with respect for human rights.

Kant's theory system is based on the premise of free will, and regards rationality as the absolute authority and self-discipline as the form of human nature for the purpose of embodying the respect for human beings and the ultimate concern for humanity, highlighting the rationality of the glorious. It requires us to respect their human nature to break away from all experience factors, and to use the rationality of human ingredients to control the emotional components. Controlling sensual desire and becoming their masters. In Kant's view, man is greater than any other kinds of nature, because the other life of nature is only sensible, there is no reason, they naturally obey natural laws, there is no freedom, it is life of the machine only knows to meet the physiological needs; completely rationally existing such as God because there is no sensual lust, do not obey the laws of nature, so only obey the law of reason; and people are not the same, people have two properties, both natural and emotional world, is a member of the human being's own rational world. Humans need to obey the law of nature, but can also use the will to control their own sensual desire to dominate their own behavior, which is different from humans and animal greatness. Kant’s moral philosophy confirms the status of human being, emphasizes human reason, confirms human dignity and value, and places man in the same pole of equality with heaven and earth. It responds to the call of Socrates that "knowing you", confronts the glory and ugliness of mankind itself, and demands that people use their own rational spirit to bind their sensual desire and become their masters and eventually help them become the true people with good will.

Kant's moral philosophy supports that the real moral value of the behavior comes from good will. Kant said, "Nothing can be envisaged as good things except for good will in the world, even outside the world." In Kant's view, what is generally thought of as good, such as reason, courage, and happiness and so on is good and enviable in many ways but without lasting, unconditional moral values. The so-called good may also be a great evil. For example, calm as a commendable quality, once owned by the wicked, the wicked will be more dangerous, the calm of the wicked people would be more hateful. Thus, "such quality must be premised on a good will, and it is often the case that the praiseworthy praise of these features should be limited, and more should not be regarded as perfect." The good will is different, "good will is not because it contributed to things and good, not because it expects things good, nor because it is good at achieving the intended goals and good, but only because of good intentions, It is free good. The good will of good will not meet any individual hobby, without any restrictions, to get rid of all experience factors, but only in the good will itself, to good for their own will, therefore, it is the only unconditional, comfortable good will.

In Kant's doctrine, responsibility is actually a manifestation of good will. Responsible behavior is not to meet any personal hobbies and actions, not because it expects things and good, it out of the social binding, natural emotions and personal likes and dislikes and other constraints, because of the will, and therefore it is good will. Thus, Kant leads to the three propositions of responsibility: "Only the behavior of the responsibility of moral value", "an action of responsibility, its moral value does not depend on its intention to achieve, but it depends on it "" Responsibility is the necessity of conduct arising out of respect for the law. " If an action is the result of responsibility, in accordance with the precepts of duty, and the individual likes or dislikes, it is invaluable. For example, the preservation of one's own life is the responsibility, but the natural feeling of one's being out of his life is of little moral value. But if it is only for the responsibility to protect their own lives, but does not contain other purposes, this behavior is a moral value. Another example is a person who is indifferent to the well-being of others, or who is disheartened by his unhappy life, and who has no time to take into account the fate of others, but he is still responsible for the care and help of others, is the action with genuine moral value.

In Kant's view, the moral law, which is the objective law of practical reason, is now a kind of coercion and an order of definiteness. The moral imperative requires that the subjective principle of conduct conform unconditionally to the moral law that your actions must be able to act as universal rules of action, Content, effect, but the form of behavior. It is concerned with ideas, motives, regardless of the effect.

However, some multinational companies in the course of business is contrary to Kant's moral theory. Some companies have been an unparalleled prosperity. Some companies built the formation of a chase in the world of high profits of the integrated enterprise system by abroad direct investment or build factories. With the development of economic globalization, the economic strength of transnational corporations is increasing day by day. In certain countries or areas, transnational corporations and their affiliated departments formed by the economic forces sufficient to make difference in the society. They not only control the employment of most laborers as employers, but also control the product market, the capital market and the service market, and play a part in the society, environmental as well as social prosperity. However, any phenomenon is divided into two sides. Firstly, multinational corporations play a part in the prosperity of native countries. They may effectively compensate for its shortage host countries, raise the quality of industrial technology in backward areas, create jobs, and promote the balance between purchase and economy. Secondly, some companies have committed many human rights violations in the host country's essencial industries For instance, crowded traffic and pollution of toxic wastes severely damaged the natural environment, treated aboriginal people in a harsh manner, sold profuctions made by child labor, poor working places and damaged human rights violations. As the UNE has stated: "Transnational companies and other departments have the capacity to build up society development, scientific advancement and increased richness, and make a difference in human obligations and personal condition by their hard-working and practices, including job practices, conditional policies, interactions with governments or other activities.” 

It is both objective and practical for transnational corporations to assume their human rights responsibilities. It means that the fact that Transnational corporations so as to pursue larger profits, rely on its strong monopoly advantages to damage some kinds of human rights such as people's health right, environment right, civil rights and political rights in production and business activities. Now human rights violations resulted in transnational corporations are able to become "out of control". The reality of the human rights responsibility of transnational corporations is that the constant exposure of the human rights of multinational companies has caused wide attack by the whole world, forcing multinational actions to become much more helpful in the step of operation. Moreover, the transnational people rights responsibilities may also be verified theoretically. Some laws supply a reliable foundation for the multinational companies to bear human rights responsibilities. In addition, from the view of the balance between rights and duty, multinational companies should also bear human rights responsibilities. Due to the balance between rights and duty, if some companies have the chance to conduct activities in some fields, they have to take certain responsibilities for the activities in this area.

The human rights responsibilities of companies uaually occur in these relationships: human rights responsibility appearing from the work connection,business connection and human rights responsibility arising from the regional connection. The definition of the scope of human rights liability of transnational corporations is not able to transfer the responsibility of human rights, but can think about the connotation and aim of transnational companies comprehensively, and obey the basis of respect. The basis of respect refers that the nation is the first responsibility of human rights, owns the responsiblity to prevent human from hurt, and transnational corporations just need to bear the obligation to respect human rights. As a result, TNCs generally only have to take on bad actions or must take creative actions to advoid their bad human rights situation. The human rights liability of an outgoing transnational company is a result of direct violation. The derivative duty is only agreeable.

To sum up, this article analyzes the Kant's moral philosophy, exemplifies the development of economy after the World War II and economic globalization, the issue of human rights appears widely especially in some multinational companies, attracting more and more public attention. I appeal once again: human rights violations are not in return for the development of economic, social and environmental. However, human rights are basic rights regardless of the state of social development. The respect and protection is fundamental to its development of healthy and orderly society as well as human beings.


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