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英国essay代写范文-Strategy behind IBM’s Video Production

2017-08-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇英国essay代写范文-Strategy behind IBM’s Video Production讲了从劳动统计局网站可以看出,过去20年来,虽然劳动生产率一般在增长,但从1995年到2006年,生产率增长率较高,从2007年到现在相对较低。在课堂学习中,在竞争激烈的市场和规模效益不断的回报下,生产力由资本深化,劳动质量增长和全要素生产率增长而增加。本文讨论了这一现象背后的一些可能的解释。本篇essay代写由51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。


The purpose of the strategy behind this video is to explain to its employees and solve the current crisis that is haunting the company. Crisis is a high profile developed by the unanticipated outcome which draws the intention of internal or external audiences, including employees, the public, media and other actors (Class 1). It might lead to reputation or financial loss and therefore must be taken seriously by senior-level management to find the right resolution. In the IBM’s scenario, its crisis lies in the result of poor earnings report of the company as well as the unflattering outcomes of technology. The third quarter’s report fell short of Wall Street’s expectation and caused its stock price to tank. This report could damage IBM’s image and visions as well as make investors to question its ability to gain expected revenues. Meanwhile, the cloud computing technology has not achieved the anticipated results as IBM expected. Since crises can harm any number of organizational objectives that communicators ultimately hope to promote, solving this crisis should be a priority of higher management of IBM (Class 1). Therefore, the video that IBM posted to its employees is a strategy of crisis communication. 

The strategy targets employees because the problem mainly occurs from the internal structure of the company, and it would make them more confident about the company as a whole. IBM is pinning the poor results on the sales staff of the company who failed to close valuable deals in the first quarter (Ante, 2013). What is more, the company management level thinks that it is crucial to push its employees to shift to new computing models in order to get back on track and boost its revenues. As the key audience, employees are the stakeholders of the company. In this case, targeting employees in its crisis communication would be the best choice to identify the problem and drive its internal force to behave in an improved way that can solve the problem. 

Employee Audience Analysis

The employees in IBM are the stakeholders of the company and also the primary audiences who are directly affected by communication. Internal communications is of key importance here due to the following reasons. To begin with, the human resources in a company have the function of attracting talents such as employees and volunteers. What is more, an aligned workforce will motivate the organization’s goals, values, and policies. Employees’ skills and knowledge is therefore sharpened, resulting in their job performance and productivity. Another thing is that internal communication can promote change within the organization and promote contributions of the workforce to the community. Finally, crisis management is one of the functions that PR might cause for a company.

The analysis of IBM’s employee audience could be segmented by Granular segmentation. Firstly, most employees can be segmented according to demographics. There are aged from 22 to 55, with income ranged from 50k/yr to 200k/yr. The gender and race ratio is quite balanced at IBM as it being an international corporation. As of the subgrouping, most mid-level employees are married with kids and almost all employees have received college education. Since they are employed by IBM, most of them are in stable condition as of mobility and have the middle-class status. Finally, the qualitative measures that IBM’s employee audience has are close connectedness, active participation, and high loyalty level towards the company as well as aspiration when it comes to work. Therefore we can say that the key characteristics of segmentation are well-educated, high income, middle-class identity, and high loyalty towards its employer. The change agents would be those who are encouraged by the speech and have faith in the company. Among these employees, potential influencers are those in mid-level management, for they will be able to influence people under them and monitor their performances.  

Nature of Crisis and Implications

The nature of the crisis at IBM is a financial one as the poor earnings reports reflect about the company due to the unflattering results of technology. As a public listed company that has over 100 years history, IBM has always make its investors confident by offering them nice returns and steady stock prices. It is one of the largest employers in the world and it has constantly shifted its business to the more profitable markets. The most straightforward picture it provides about the revenue it can create is through earning reports. As a result of the unexpected fails of sales in cloud computing and other key technologies, profits are lower in the third quarter compared to previous earnings. With lower profit implicated, IBM’s decreasing revenues overtime is not a good sign of the company’s growth, which eventually led to the 8% drop of stock price.

Therefore, IBM needs to find out the reason behind the dropping revenues, and it blamed the poor results on the company’s sales staff who failed to close deals on valuable software and hardware deals. Although the company has survived financial crisis and its stock price was backed up by strong earnings, IBM is still facing a series of challenges that it needs to cope with in today’s economic settings. To begin with, the company hasn’t transformed fast enough to deal with the new coming opportunities and threats brought by the information age. Although it has got rid of many traditional businesses and purchased new businesses, the company is too big to move quickly as a whole. What is more, the senior management at the company was getting bureaucratic, and the CEO decided to reassign the head of Systems and Technology to be the senior vice president for corporate strategy (Ante, 2013). Finally, the CEO decided to unleash the new rule of in-time response within 24 hours by all employees to clients. This rule shows the determination of IBM to respond more quickly to customers and move faster as a whole. The crisis also implicates that IBM’s core problem might not necessarily lies in execution, but its failure to deal with the major technological shift of cloud computing (Ante, 2013). With most part of revenue generated by software and hardware sales, IBM is less competitive on cloud computing compared to its rivalry like Amazon Inc (Ante, 2013). To deal with this issue, IBM should not only develop its business of private clouds, but should also utilize the cost advantage of public cloud services.  This message would be delivered to IBM’s employees to encourage them not to lose faith in the company and stick together as a team. 

Organizational Identity of IBM

During the crisis response, the organization is the first element of the whole event chain. Therefore it is crucial to understand the organizational identity of IBM before structuring any tools or channels. The organizational identity will help one to fully discover the mission and philosophy of IBM and its contexts will allow one to craft the right way to solve the crisis (Class 2). 

According to the three elements of organizational identity, IBM’s objective identity is a multinational company that focuses on technology. Its subjective identity, however, is a company that is dedicated to every client’s success with the driving force of innovation. As of its aspirational identity, IBM aspires to be the company that reinvent technology and combine digital with intelligence as its cognitive business to step in the new era. 

According to the four images of organizational identity that requires alignment, IBM has an actual identity of a public listed company traded at the New York Stock Exchange that belongs to the industry of cloud computing, cognitive computing, and information technology. The communicated identity that IBM intends to deliver is that has a strong growth as a global enterprise and is still on track of its objectives.  With so many employees around the world, IBM conducted businesses with continuous transformation and was dedicated to generate values for its investors. Its value is to dedicate to every client’s success and provide innovation that matters for both the company and the world. The conceived identity of IBM by stakeholders is a trustworthy, responsible corporation that can bring them expected returns in reliable business. The desired identity of IBM is an innovation-driving company that believes in personal responsibility and trust. Its CEO’s vision of the company is that IBM should strive to combine the digital intelligence with business strategy to gain performance-based recognition. 

Advantages of Tools and Channels 

The tool that IBM applies in this crisis is CEO’s speech towards its employees. An effective speech can make a statement to its perceived audiences and deliver the message to alleviate the outcomes of the crisis promptly. The speech won’t be made to just a few employees, but to all of them on a video streaming. The strengths of this tool are that it can reach the targeted audiences (employees) and provide them the live message. The speech message is easier for audiences to understand than reading an article or executive summary because the voice and pictures will enhance the memory. What is more, the speaker has control over the message and such incident would also gain IBM enough media attention. Finally, the speech of the CEO can enhance morale of employees because it delivers confidence, loyalty and the sense of belonging at IBM from top down. In conclusion, the tool of public speech is a great one as it fully provides its audience the above qualities that enable them to be engaged by its contexts. 

The channel that IBM has selected is a video message of its CEO to employees. This is a typical mediated communication and it has many advantages compared to the unmediated ones, such as fact-to-face talk, conference, and else. Firstly, the mediated communication has larger audience reach than the unmediated communication. As a global corporation, IBM has many branches in 170 countries, and it would be difficult to talk to them face-to-face. Video speech can effectively cover all employees in the office and around the world. Secondly, reception of the video speech will be more active than that of unmediated communication while employees exchange their opinions with each other, making the message more interactive. What is more, the absorption of the message tends to be quicker or at least be the same as one’s reading speed for common people (Class 3). As employees are watching the speech on the video, the message is fully delivered through the expression on the CEO’s face, her gestures, voice, and intonations. 

Strategy of Message and Elements of Persuasion 

The framing of the message by IBM has aligned with the way we shape the information that the company wishes to communicate to its employees. The message is constructed in a way to encourage certain interpretations of information while discouraging others (Class 2). Working as a filter, framing allows the audience to receive information without having to analyze everything IBM has encountered (Class 2). In the CEO’s speech, there are three kinds of framing: macro, meso and micro. For macro frame, the broad context of the message is set before the audience to affect how they approach or encounter the communication. With the CEO’s presence as the speech maker, the audience will subconsciously perceive the message as something important and serious before the CEO speaks. The big picture that IBM is taking the crisis as its priority will alarm all employees to focus on the message and listen carefully. For meso frame, it is something contained within the choice of communication that represents the content structure, evidence and persuasive technique in the crisis communication. Here, the CEO choose to address herself as a IBMer who has devoted her entire career into the company, which implicates that she intends to solve the crisis for IBM together with all the employees. This meso frame successfully brings the CEO together with lower ranked employees and delivers the message that they should be in this as a whole team. For the micro frame, it takes place at the level of an individual word or set of words in the speech which involves navigating subtleties of language to create associations between the speaker and the audience (Class 2). The CEO uses words like ‘fall short of expectations’, ‘fierce competition’, ‘shifts and reinventions’, and ‘current financial condition’  instead of ‘fail to meet requirements’, ‘severe contest’, ‘restructure and change’, and ‘bad economy’ to let the audience hear and feel that the company can sit through the crisis without being in a more severe condition. With the right choice of words, the speech makes the CEO sound confident, enthusiastic and calm when facing the crisis, which will boost confidence in employees. 

Another important element of the message lies in the persuasion of the speech. It is intended to induce the audience to believe or take actions through the appealing argument contained in the video. The persuasion has three general techniques, of which the first is pathos.  The emotions contained in the CEO’s speech can connect her with the employees on a personal level. For instance, the CEO opens the speech by addressing her position at the company as an IBMer instead of a boss. She also mentions how all members at the company should work together as ‘we’ to head into the new era of technology. This makes strong emotional appeals to the audience and the CEO here serves as a good storyteller that make the employees feel the same way as she does. The second technique here is ethos, which means that the speaker persuade its audiences by character. In her speech, the CEO fully applies her personality and reputation as the leader of the company and shows her wisdom when facing the certain crisis. She suggests that the crisis is a challenge that allows all IBMers to work together because ‘growth and comfort do not coexist’. Meanwhile, her wordings are full of philosophy and charm, such as ‘Reinvention and visionary are deep in our corporate gene, and we never take for granted where we are’. The final technique is logos, which means persuasion by logic. The speech has a systematic logic that enlists facts, rationalizes, and builds case for the conclusion in the context. The CEO first explains the cause of the crisis and reinforces the importance of innovation. Then, she goes on and addresses the challenging current situation that requires IBMers to work together and keep reinventing. Finally, the CEO makes a logical conclusion that certain adjustments should be made, including the timely response to clients, alternation of senior management, and possible lay-offs. This will enable the audiences who are mostly high-cognition employees to think and scrutinize the message delivered by the higher management at the company. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, the video speech that IBM posts to its employees is an effective way to solve the crisis of dropped quarterly revenues and boost confidence in employees. The financial and technical crisis the IBM is facing shows that the company is having a series of challenges that under the industry status quo.  To cope with the crisis, IBM targets the employees as audience with consideration of segmentation and coverage. The communication is built on the understanding of the organizational identity on many levels and the message is delivered through the tool of speech and the channel of video streaming.  As a result, the speech is strategically prepared according to the right context and persuasion techniques. Therefore we can say that the crisis communication is ethical based on the fact that it addresses the problem and offers the right resolutions. The employees will be encouraged by the message that the CEO skillfully prepares and the company will head towards a better future. 

Reference

Ante, Spencer E. (2013)  IBM 's Chief to Employees: Think Fast, Move Faster. Wall Street Journal, New York. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.cul.columbia.edu/docview/1343717747

Kedem, A. (2016) Class 1, Crisis Communication. 

Kedem, A. (2016) Class 2, Crisis Communication.

Kedem, A. (2016) Class 3, Crisis Communication.

Kedem, A. (2016) Class 5, Crisis Communication.

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