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argument essay写作破解步骤-argument essay 怎么写

2017-01-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

纵观整个写作考试,似乎应该概括为“Issue让我们变得广博,Argument让我们成为辩手”,那么,argument essay 写作是什么?下面英国论文代写平台来分析一下argument essay 写作特点、破题步骤、写作步骤及论证方法。让大家明白argument essay 怎么写


一. argument essay 写作特点

What is an Argument?

A strong argument attempts to persuade the reader to accept a point of view. As such, it consists of a proposition, a declarative statement which is capable of being argued, and a proof, a reason or ground which is supported by evidence. The evidence, in turn, is composed of relevant facts, opinions based on facts and careful reasoning. If you are analyzing an argument, you should look for both of these: a proposition and the evidence supporting the proposition.


Attack the Argument

Each argument's stimulus has been intentionally"loaded" with flaws (fallacies) that you should acknowledge and discuss. If you fail to see the more fundamental problems in the argument, you will not get a high score.

The purpose of the essay is for you to critique the reasoning in the argument (the stimulus will tell you to make this evaluation). Your personal opinions are not relevant. Your essay needs to focus on flaws in the argument. While in the Analysis of Issue you write your opinion on a subject,in the Analysis of Argument you write a logical critique of a flawed argument.Thus, the approaches to the two essays should be different.


ETS对这部分的要求体现在:

第一,要求考试敏锐的洞察出一篇文章的主要的几点逻辑错误(没有必要把所有的逻辑错误全部找出);

第二,既然是攻击对方文章的逻辑错误,那么考生本生所写的文章要有逻辑性,或者说逻辑合理性;

第三,一篇Argument的用词用句有他特定的风格(和Issue有所区别),因此 考生要选择准确恰当的词句表达。Argument的结构比较固定,易于掌握,一般都能写出个标准的“经典5段式”,为了写好这种模式,这种文章的关键是抓住逻辑错误,这是拿到高分的第一点,最重要的一点。如果写了很多,没抓住要害,语言再好也拿不到高分。攻击的语言可以不专业化,但是抓住错误最关键。如果 文字色彩很专业化,可以表现出逻辑修养,攻击的很地道,当然可以增加分值,写作时间为30分钟。好,下面我们从ETS的的Argument写作要求以及 ETS提供的范文入手,来详细的看看如何写作Argument。


二.argument essay  破题步骤

第一步:通过特征词确定逻辑错误类型

例如:表因果的: lead to , cause, result in

表比较的: compare to ; as…as

第二步:判断逻辑,进行推理;找出结论,分清层次

A)每一个小的ARGUMENT都在完成一个貌似很有道理的由因到果的演 绎,或是执果索因的归因。严重的错误往往是发生在推理过程中的,当然有的题目其结果本身也存在着错误,但这些错误远不及推理错误致命。

B) argument也符合一般文章的结构行文,“总分总”的情况很多很多,关于分的部分也多是“原因的并列”,“原因的步步逼近”。

C) argument的结论一般很明显,最常见的就是“therefore”、”Thus”、”Consequently”等等。

第三步:攻击各个逻辑,确定攻击要点和优先级

例如:类比 》 因果 》 数据 》 调查


三.argument essay 写作步骤及论证方法(范文评析)

(一). 写作步骤:

第一段: 开头段。主要是归纳论点,说明论点有问题,存在逻辑漏洞,准备发起进。

第一层:This argument concludes/recommends/argues that…

第二层:To support this conclusion the writer cites…/points out that…

第三层:However, this argument suffers from several critical flaws and is the reforeunconvincing/ unpersuasive as it stands.

第二段和第三段甚至第四段:分类别去攻击各个逻辑错误。(以因果关系类错误为例)

One problem with the argument is that, the editorialobserves a correlation between… and …, then concludes that the former is the cause of the latter. However, the editorial fails to rule out other possible explanations for…For example,… Any of these factors, or other social, politicalor economic factors, might lead to…Without ruling out all other such factors it is unfair to conclude that…

第五段: 结尾段。作者的结论似乎是合理的,但是通过论证,不是这样的。因此作者在做出决定之前,应该还要考虑其他情况。我们通过一篇文章作为实例来介绍Argument的论证步骤和论证方法以及文章结构。

In the final analysis, the letter's author fails to adequately support the recommendation that…To bolster the argument, the arguer must provide detaileddemographic/statistical evidence showing that…The author must also provideevidence--perhaps by way of a reliable survey—that…

(二). 论证方法(范文示例):

Six months ago the region of Forestville increased the speed limit for vehiclestraveling on the region's highways by ten miles per hour. Since that change took effect, the number of automobile accidents in that region has increased by15 percent. But the speed limit in Elmsford, a region neighboring Forestville,remained unchanged, and automobile accidents declined slightly during the samesix-month period. Therefore, if the citizens of Forestville want to reduce the number of automobile accidents on the region's highways, they should campaignto reduce Forestville's speed limit to what it was before the increase.

简单翻译:6个月前,Forestville地区提高了本地区公路上的最高时速限制,比原先提高了10公里。由于这个变化的影响,本地区车祸的数量提高了 15%。但是,Elmsford地区(和Forestville地区相邻)并没有改变最高时速限制,它的车祸数量在同样的6个月里,反而有少量的减少。因 此,如果Forestville市民想要减少公路上的车祸数量,他们应该想办法将本地区的最高时速限制减少到改变前的状态。

  分析题目:找到原题逻辑结构关系

  论据: F地区提高最高时速限制 10公里 ------〉 车祸发生率增加15%

  E地区(和F相邻)没有改变最高时速限制------〉少量的减少

  结论: F地区如果想要减少车祸,就要恢复到原来的最高时速限制。

  大家注意我们一定要搞清结论是什么,这一点我们可以通过信号性标志词来判断:thus, therefore,so, consequently等等。

The argument is well-presented, but not thoroughly well-reasoned. (说明论点有问题)By making a comparison of the region of Forestville, the town with the higher speed limit and therefore automobile accidents, with the region ofElmsford, an area of a lower speed limit and subsequently fewer accidents, the argument for reducing Forestville's speed limits in order to decrease accidents seems logical.(归纳论点,准备发起进攻)

第二段:第一轮攻击

攻击点:可能有其他原因,造成提高限速后车祸的增加。(不一定是限速引起的)(本段主题句)

论证结构:总--分--总

However, the citizens of Forestville are failing to consider other possiblealternatives to the increasing car accidents after the raise in speed limit.

(它因法,这个以后我们也会讲到,也就是说造成提高限速后车祸的增加可能有其他原因,ISSUE一样,这也是本段中心句)

Such alternatives may include the fact that there are less (lessàfewer) reliable cars traveling the roads in Forestville, or that the age bracket of those in Elmsford may be more conducive to driving safely. It ispossible that there are more younger, inexperienced, or more elderly, unsafedrivers in Forestville than there are in Elmsford.

(可能原因:有可能是因为F地区比E地区有更多的老弱和不熟练的驾车者)

In addition, the citizens have failed to consider the geographicaland physical terrain of the two different areas. Perhaps Forestville's highwayis in an area of more dangerous curves, sharp turns, or has many intersections or merging points where accidents are more likely to occur.

(人们可能忽略了两地地形地貌的差别,将分观点详细说,举例)

It appears reasonable,therefore, for the citizens to focus on these trouble spots than to reduce thespeed in the entire area. Elmsford may be an area of easier driving conditionswhere accidents are less likely to occur regardless of the speed limit.

(这是个总结。因此,人们应该更加关注以上的问题,而不是减少限速。E地区可能是一个行车条件比较好的地区,时速限制对它的影响不大。)这种 首句题出本段论点,然后,展开解释的写作方法,实用简单,为广大考生所采用,也是ETS阅卷人最喜欢的句子结构,一目了然。

A six-month period is not a particularly long time frame for the citizens to determine that speed limit has influenced the number of automobile accidents in the area. It is mentioned in the argument that Elms ford accidents decreased during the time period. This may have been a time, such asduring harsh weather conditions, when less (lessàfewer) people were driving on the road and therefore the number of accidents decreased. However, Forestville citizens, perhaps coerced by employment or other requirements, were unable to avoid driving on the roads.

(仅仅以6个月的时间进行判断是没有道理的。因为提高限速后,6个月相对车祸的发生数量来讲太短。或许这6个月是一个比较糟糕的天气情况,人 们驾车外出减少,因此车祸减少(E地区的情况),但是,F地区,可能因为工作或者其他原因,被迫驾车外出。(因为气候条件不好,所以F地区车祸增加,而此时刚好提高限速,大家都以为是提高限速惹的祸)

Again, the demographics of the population are important. It is possible that Elmsford citizens do not have to travel far from work or work from their home, or do not work at all. Are there more people in Forestville than there were sic months ago? If so, there may bean increased number of accidents due to more automobiles on the road, and notdue to the increased speed limits.

(人口统计学也很关键,有可能E地区的人不用开车去上班,甚至不用上班;现在F地区的人口,是否比6个月前多。有可能是因为人口增加导致F 地区路上的车辆增多而造成交通事故增加,而不是由于提高限速。这个地方有个疑问句的形式,符合ETS句型多变的要求)

Also in reference to the activities of the population, it is possible that Forestville inhabitants were traveling during less (lessàfewer)safe times of the day, such as early in the morning, or during twilight. Work or family habits may have encouraged citizens to drive duringthis time when Elmsford residents may not have been forced to do so.

(参考人们一天的活动,也许F地区的人习惯在清晨、黎明等不安全的时间驾车外出。而E地区的人不用这样做。)

Overall, the reasoning behind decreasing Forestville'sspeed limit back to its original seems logical as presented above since the citizens are acting in their own best interests and want to protect their safety.

(总之,论题中的关于降低F地区的限速似乎是合理的,因为市民们是出于他们的利益并且想要保证他们的安全。让步语气,说论题似乎合理)

However, before any final decisions are made about the reduction inspeed limit, the citizens and officials of Forestville should evaluate all possible alternatives and causes for the increased number of accidents over the six-month period as compared to Elms ford.

(但是,在做出最后的决定之前,F地区的市民和政府都应该考虑到所有其它的可能。)个人认为这个不失为一种较好的结尾模板形式。


下面看看评价,你们有什么收获呢?

This outstanding essay begins by noting that the argument "seems logical." It then proceeds to discuss possible alternative explanations for the increase in car accidents and provides an impressively full analysis.Alternatives mentioned are that:

  对于文章内容方面的评价:

  -- the two regions might have drivers of different ages and experience;

  -- Forestville's topography, geography, cars, and/or roads might

  contribute to accidents;

  -- six months might be an insufficient amount of time for determining

  that the speed limit is linked to the accident rate;

  -- demographics might play a role in auto accidents;

  -- population and auto density should be considered; 

  -- the times of day when drivers in the two regions travel might be relevant.

对于文章结构方面的评价:

The points are cogently developed and are linked in such a way as to create alogically organized essay. Transitions together with interior connectionscreate a smoothly integrated presentation.

对于文章文采方面的评价:

For the most part, the writer uses language correctly and well and providesexcellent variety in syntax. The minor flaws do not detract from the overall high quality ofthe critique. This is an impressive 6 paper.


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