论文用于：MBA essay 本科课程作业
A problem is the gap between current situation and desired situation. Problem solving is the process of analyzing the situation and developing a solution to the situation. Problem solving consists of nine stages. The first stage is problem identification. There is a saying that correctly identifying a problem brings you halfway to solution. The second stage is problem verification. A number of resources should be used to verification. For example, McKinsey & Company reviews the external pressures from customers, competitors, and technology. It also reviews internal changes such as labor relations. The next stage is problem definition. The scope of the problem that is defined will determine the resource requirements. The next stage is root-cause analysis. The root cause is condition that would prevent the problem from occurring. The next stage is alternative generation. The manager begins to concentrate on developing approaches and make a list of possible solutions. The next stage is evaluation of alternatives. It is the process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of each solution. The next stage is implementation. A plan is useless unless it is implemented. The next stage is post-implementation review. A post-implementation evaluation of whether the problem has been solved or not should be conducted. Knowing what worked and what did not can help improve problem solving in the future. The last stage is institutionalization and control. The manager should consider whether the problem is isolated or not. If there are similar problems in other departments, transfer the newly developed solution to these locations.
Problem solving and decision making are important skills for business. Many business problems are complex. Therefore, when the manger uses the problem solving model, he or she will pay more attention to problem verification. Without verification, the manager may discover he or she has spent too much time and effort on a solution to the wrong problem. Many business problems have limitations of time, money and information. For example, some problems require an emergency response. This means that the manager needs to find an interim solution before he or she can fully explore the problem. The efficiency of using the problem solving model will have an effect on the credibility of the manager. There are other business conditions such as risk, uncertainty, and individual. During the stage of evaluation of the alternatives in the problem solving model, the manager needs to consider the resources necessary to implement each solution. At the same time, the manager needs to consider both the tangible and intangible benefits and costs of each alternative.
Here are three techniques to aid dcision making in an organization. A pros and cons list is useful. Firstly the manager prepares a separate sheet for each identified option, and writes clearly the option as well as the headings ‘pros’ and ‘cons’. Pro means advantages, while con means disadvantages. Then the manager writes down implications of the particular option and compares the effects. Writing things down will help the manager to see things more clearly and make clearer decisions. A PDCA cycle approach is also helpful for decision making. PDCA means plan, do, check, and act. Firstly the manager develops a solution to the problem. The second step is to implement the plan. Then the manager examines whether the solution achieved the desired goal or not. If the problem was not solved, the manager acts with a new plan. SWOT analysis is used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in a business. It involves identifying internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve objectives of an organization. It is also a useful method for effective decision making.
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