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essay代写-The U.S. system of defense technology management

2019-10-16 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The U.S. system of defense technology management讨论了美国的国防科技管理体制。国防科技管理体制是军事科技活动的组织结构、管理体系和相关制度的总称,指的是依据国防发展战略和军事斗争准备的客观需要,构建政治管理、技术管理和行政管理“三位一体”的组织体系,通过决策、规划、控制、评价以及军事资源的合理配置等制度来保障军事科技活动有效运行,推进军事科学技术的持续发展。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

defense technology management,美国国防科技管理体制,essay代写,代写,paper代写

As the situation and tasks change, the defense science and technology management system of the United States is constantly reformed and improved, and its development and evolution can be roughly divided into the following stages. Second, from 1940 to 1970, due to the needs of the war and the important role played by science and technology in the war during World War II, the United States quickly established a research and development system for military purposes. The long cold war after World War II made the United States enter a period of scientific and technological activities with military technology as the core. Third, during the transition period from 1970 to 1988, due to the changes in the world situation, the United States constantly adjusted its science and technology policy, and its science and technology management system also changed accordingly. Fourth, since the end of the cold war, the post-cold war international balance of power and the world pattern have undergone major changes. In the face of economic globalization and rapid development of new and high technologies, the American defense science and technology policy has undergone major adjustments.

In 1915, the United States established the national aeronautical advisory board, the first military research institution established by the U.S. government, expanding the government's authority to organize scientific research. In the same year, the navy established the navy advisory board. At the initiative of the smithsonian's national museum of natural history and the national academy of sciences, then-president Wilson directed the national academy of sciences to form the national research council, whose mission was to create conditions for cooperation between governments, universities, businesses and other research organizations. By 1920 the United States had developed a national scientific research system consisting of federal laboratories, corporate research institutes, institutions of higher learning, and private scientific foundations. This period is the focus of the U.S. government agriculture, the development of national resources, such as military and aircraft, but there is little to invest in research and development of science and technology, nor develop national scientific planning and national technology planning, in addition to the aviation, the United States the development of science and technology relies mainly on the inventor of the individuals and businesses to promote, and according to the demand of the market to regulate their own research. The technical achievements of the us military scientific research are lack of overall management and use.

President Roosevelt in 1941 approved the establishment of the national scientific research and development office, the office than world war I, the national research council has greater independence and initiative, and during the second world war as a whole of the national scientific research activities, the famous "Manhattan project", radar and penicillin and other major projects of science and technology research and development, are under the leadership of the office. Through these research programs, the United States has established a research mechanism in which the government entrusts the private sector to undertake research projects and coordinates the implementation of national science and technology programs under the interaction of the government, enterprises and private research sectors. The success of the Manhattan project demonstrates the enormous efficiency of this mechanism. In 1941, the United States government established the wartime scientific research and development agency to adapt to wartime needs and accelerate the development of weapons and equipment. Since 1945, the relevant agencies of the us federal government have funded the scientific research activities of universities. The office of naval research, established in 1946 with congressional authorization, has awarded 177 research contracts to 81 U.S. universities and supported more than 600 research projects. The atomic energy commission of the United States, established in 1947, oversees research in atomic energy science. In 1958, in order to consolidate the dominant position of the United States in the field of space science and technology, the United States enacted the aerospace act, which merged the former aviation advisory committee and its research institute to form the national aeronautics and space administration. During this period, the federal government made a major effort in scientific research management aspect, gradually formed by the national laboratory and the research and development of private enterprises and private institutions of research and development system, established the system of government support for basic research, the original belongs to the national defense mobilization bureau scientific advisory committee on restructuring scientific advisory committee for the President, and has set up by the chairman of the President, heads of government departments to committee members of the highest decision-making authority of science and technology in the United States - federal science and technology commission, in order to comprehensively strengthen leadership and management of scientific research.

Before the 1970s, the United States established a scientific and technological research and development system focusing on military technology. Although it has achieved some success, it has seriously weakened the development of civilian industrial science and technology by overemphasizing the research on national defense and space technology. In the 1970s, the United States experienced another economic recession, and the government began to rethink the long-standing science and technology policy and made significant adjustments to the science and technology policy system. In 1972, the Nixon administration established the office of technology evaluation, and enacted the science and technology evaluation act, which required the evaluation of major science and technology projects and the adjustment of national funded research and development priorities. In 1974, the U.S. government established the energy research and development administration, which was later upgraded to the department of energy, with a view to strengthening energy research and development and utilization in the fields of oil, coal, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. At the suggestion of the then President ford in 1976, congress approved the White House office of science and technology policy, and in April that year passed the "national science and technology policy, organization, and the priority method", this is the landmark in the history of a science and technology legislation, given the government to develop national science and technology policy of power and responsibility, but also established a national science and technology policy in the important position in the national policy.

Is authorized by the department of defense, the United States in 1990 established the "national key technology committee, the committee is made up of 13 people, including nine designated by the government, including government officials, the private sector technical experts and universities or research institutions of experts all 3 people, another four people, respectively is the defense department, the department of energy, ministry of commerce and the national aeronautics and space administration designated representative, committee, led by director of the White House office of science and technology policy. By law, the NCCT is required to submit biennial reports to the President and congress on key national technologies every two years until the year 2000. While formulating and improving the national defense science and technology policy, the us government also adjusted the national defense science and technology management system, including reforming the national laboratory management system and entrusting some national laboratories to private enterprises. Efforts shall be made to civilize, commercialize and develop dual-use military technologies, and the office of advanced technology research shall be mainly responsible for the development of dual-use technologies; the ministry of commerce and the ministry of defense are designated to take full responsibility for high-tech research and development, no longer a single agency, and so on.

The United States, relying on its military technology, has organized and implemented a series of world-renowned major defense science and technology projects, such as the "Manhattan project", "Apollo moon landing project", and "missile defense program", in order to maintain its national security and one-superpower status. These major defense science and technology projects, in a short period of time, concentrated a large number of human, material and financial resources and achieved great success, greatly improving the overall national strength of the United States. The success of these major defense science and technology projects largely depends on scientific leadership and effective organization and implementation.

The major department of defense technology management in the U.S. government is the department of defense, in addition to the department of energy, NASA, the department of commerce, the state department and other departments. The U.S. defense technology research and development force is mainly private enterprises, as well as a small number of government, military research and production force. The ministry of national defense formulates key technology plans every year to give key support to key technologies affecting the development of national defense science and technology and weapons and equipment, and organizes the military and arms to put forward weapons and equipment requirements. With the support of scientific research funds and the purchase of weapons and equipment provided by the ministry of national defense, the demonstration, design, development and production of weapons and equipment shall be carried out jointly by the government, the military, private scientific research institutes and enterprises. The development and production of nuclear weapons and military space systems are jointly organized and implemented by the departments of defense, energy and NASA. During the research and development of weapons and equipment, the ministry of national defense and the military have special agencies to monitor and manage the whole process of national defense research and production.

Under the premise of fully considering the national security needs, the defense science and technology project management of the United States has been fully demonstrated and carried out pre-research work. The project is established through the formulation of special science and technology research and development plans and implemented under the leadership and organization of special committees or permanent institutions.

As can be seen from the major defense science and technology projects that have been organized, implemented and completed in the history of the United States, these projects often start from the Suggestions or ideas put forward by scientists or high-level decision makers, and reach consensus after repeated deliberation and discussion by the government and the military as well as the science and technology community and enterprises. For example, the famous American "Star Wars" program is based on the research report "high frontier: strategies for national survival". The report was presented to President Ronald Reagan by dozens of scientists, led by former director of the defense intelligence agency, graham, and the father of the U.S. hydrogen bomb, John Taylor. Reagan announced the stunning strategic defense initiative on March 23, 1983, and approved the strategic defense research program in January 1984, establishing the strategic defense planning agency. In March 1985, the bureau first submitted the "strategic defense initiative research program" report to the U.S. congress. Thus it can be seen that the generation of major defense science and technology projects in the United States has traditionally been a decision-making process based on changes in the international military competition environment and major national security needs, without statutory procedures and fixed methods. For nearly 30 years since the us government, military, military scientific research institutions and enterprises is becoming more and more importance to national defense science and technology management, combined with the development of management theory and methods of science and technology is applied, the United States on the national defense science and technology major project of produce, gradually by the scientists of the past or the individual behavior of senior policymakers, dominated by the defense department to planned and organized decision action, through the guidance of science and technology policy, science and technology development strategy or plan, use of science and technology management methods and tools, to form the national defense science and technology major project of scientific and standardized management system.

The United States government during world war ii and the cold war put forward defense science and technology major projects, such as "Manhattan project", "Apollo program" and "the missile defense plan", is based on maintenance national security interests to point to the highest, centralized and unified under the leadership of the government implement the system of science and technology r&d, many enterprises organizations, universities, research institutions to participate in the activities of national defense science and technology major project research and development, and enterprises for the implementation of the main. At its peak, the Apollo program was organized by 20,000 enterprises, more than 200 universities and 80 research institutions, with more than 300,000 participants.

After the cold war, with the economic globalization and the new military transformation, national security is more dependent on the development of high technology and national economic strength. While maintaining its competitive advantage in science and technology and economic control, the United States strives to comprehensively control and seize new commanding heights in military science and technology, and constantly launches major defense science and technology projects with strong civil-military integration. At the same time, the us government has changed its previous policy of opposing business alliances, and encouraged military enterprises with close ties to the ministry of defense to combine and merge, so as to expand the scale of military enterprises, enhance their market competitiveness, and improve the strength of national defense science and technology.

In the implementation process of major defense science and technology projects in the United States, mid-term inspection and evaluation shall be carried out according to the specific characteristics and requirements of the projects, and the quality, schedule, financial expenditure budget and other aspects shall be tracked and controlled to reduce risks as far as possible. In order to strengthen the evaluation of major national defense projects, the us government issued the program evaluation rating tool in 2002, which is applicable to the performance evaluation of all major national defense science and technology projects in the us, so as to achieve an objective and transparent evaluation of the implementation of the government's national defense science and technology program.

Defense science and technology major project of regular assessment and completion acceptance, generally shall be the responsibility of the corresponding specialized agencies, specialized agencies is composed of related experts and scholars in the field of, in the whole process of national defense science and technology major project management work, for the national defense science and technology major project of openness, fairness and justice provides a reliable guarantee. When the government formulates laws and regulations related to major national defense science and technology projects, special agencies supervise the impartiality and transparency of the legislation and put forward relevant legislative Suggestions to avoid blind decision-making by the government. In the process of the approval and evaluation of major national defense science and technology projects, the specialized agencies are responsible for the evaluation of the feasibility of the approval and the evaluation of the tenderers. In the process of project tracking management and acceptance, specialized agencies are responsible for supervision and evaluation. In a word, the specialized agencies are important organizational bodies of the government for the management of major defense science and technology projects, and have effectively played a supervisory and advisory role in ensuring the openness, fairness and impartiality of the implementation of major defense science and technology projects.

The us defense science and technology system has a high degree of military and civilian compatibility. The department of defense is the leading unit of defense science and technology research and development in the United States. Its scientific research system is mainly composed of four parts. Second, university research institutions. Among the more than 480 "research universities" in the United States, more than 250 have signed contracts with the ministry of defense. Third, the research institutions of defense industrial enterprises, which are not only engaged in the trial production and production of military products, but also actively engaged in the development and application of defense science and technology. Fourth, research institutions of government departments, such as the federal department of energy, have three research institutes mainly engaged in research activities related to nuclear weapons. The military-civilian integration of the U.S. defense technology system has the following characteristics.

The scientific research and production of us military products are completed through market economy and market rules. The government, military and enterprises share the risks of scientific research and development, exchange scientific research information and technology transfer with each other, and share the results for mutual benefit. In the United States, the federal procurement act stipulates that "contract officers shall disclose contract operations to enhance competition and expand industry participation" and "to practice full and open competition".

In the long-term development of the defense technology industry in the United States, a relatively complete system of operating mechanisms has been formed, including interest mechanism, policy mechanism, planning mechanism, contract mechanism and legal mechanism. To guide, promote and standardize the progress and development of national defense science and technology through sound national defense science and technology policies and plans. At the same time, the United States has a complete legal system for defense research and production, and all defense science and technology activities are carried out under strict legal norms.

Intermediary service organization is an official and non-governmental organization which is independent from the government and enterprises but connects the government and enterprises and provides consulting services for both sides. Intermediary organizations in the United States is very developed, the closest relationship with the national defense science and technology is the defense industry association, the association has 850 member companies and more than 24000 individual members, the main work is to provide the government of national defence technology, information, advice and solutions, by participating in international competition support the development of the national defense science and technology.

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