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essay代写-Labor theory of value

2019-10-15 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Labor theory of value讨论了劳动价值论。价值这个词最早出现在德语中,古希腊哲学家亚里士多德很早就意识到商品的二重属性,古罗马思想家奥古斯丁提出了公平价格概念,马格努斯在经验事实基础上指出公平价格的基础即商品的真正价值,阿奎那把需求引入价格。劳动价值论最开始的理论是从流通领域转到生产领域,威廉·配第区分了自然价格和政治价格,认识到劳动是商品价值的源泉。亚当·斯密进一步提出劳动是一切财富的源泉的论断,大卫·李嘉图则对商品价值是由劳动时间决定做了分析,马克思则是在亚当·斯密和大卫·李嘉图的劳动价值论基础上总结形成完整的劳动价值论。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

The word "value" first appeared in German and the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle have long been aware that double attribute of the commodity, the Roman ideologist augustine put forward the concept of "fair price", magnus on empirical facts pointed out that the true value of the goods, the basis of a fair price Aquinas introduce the demand price. The first theory of labor value was from circulation to production. William petiti distinguished between natural and political prices and recognized that labor is the source of commodity value. Adam Smith further proposed that "labor is the source of all wealth", David ricardo analyzed that the value of goods is determined by labor time, and Marx summarized and formed a complete labor theory of value based on the labor theory of value of Adam Smith and David ricardo.

Mercantilism came into being in the capitalist market. Only money or goods that can be converted into money are wealth. Early mercantilism emphasized the importance of gold and silver wealth and pursued the principle of "sell more and sell less". In 1951, an early British mercantilist, William stafford, believed that the lack of precious metals led to the devaluation of the currency and the rise in commodity prices. He advocated banning the outflow of precious metals and raising the export price as much as possible in order to import a large number of foreign currencies or gold and silver. Early French mercantilism montclair believed in the importance of commerce and opposed the export of French money. Later mercantilism began to look at money from the perspective of capitalism, no longer opposed to the export of money, hoping to expand the trade surplus. Thomas mann's son argued that the important thing in trade relations was not to keep the currency in reserve, but to put it into profitable circulation and to further export surpluses. Colbert, a late French mercantilist, believed that the strength of a country lies in its financial resources, which in turn depend on the tax revenue of the country. The mercantilist school believes that value is gold and silver money, and only "buy cheap and sell expensive" can gain wealth. Its mistake lies in that it takes the form of value as the value of commodities.

Kenai, the founder of the physiocratic school, believed that exchange was equivalent in the natural order, so circulation was not the source of wealth of a country as mercantilism said. Since exchange follows the principle of equivalence, surplus value can only be found in the field of production. A certain amount of wealth is destroyed in the production of new wealth, and the surplus of new wealth minus the wealth consumed in the production of that wealth is a net product. On the source of net products, duerge, a practitioner of physiocratism, further attributed net products to agricultural labor and clearly pointed out that the labor of peasants was the only source of all wealth. Physiocrats changed the research object from circulation field to production field, reduced value to use value, and believed that surplus value was the amount of use value produced, so surplus value was generated in production instead of exchange. The mistake is that surplus value is indeed produced in production, but it is not produced naturally, because surplus value is formed by the surplus labor of laborers.

William pedee was the "pioneer of labor theory of value", the first person who combined labor and value into consideration, thus putting forward the viewpoint that labor determines value. William petty believed that the "natural price" of goods was measured in hours of labor, and that goods should be exchanged according to the amount of labor they contained. He also further realized that the value of goods and labor time is proportional to the relationship. William p. first consciously attributed the source of commodity value to labor, and took labor time as the yardstick to evaluate the value of commodities, which laid the foundation of the scientific labor theory of value.

Adam Smith first defined the use value and exchange value of commodities. Secondly, it points out the difference between use value and exchange value, and takes water and diamond as an example to put forward the famous value paradox. For this reason, Adam Smith argued that exchange value cannot be explained by use value. The third is that labor is a measure of the exchange value of goods. But the labor that determines the exchange value of a commodity in the sense of Adam Smith has two meanings: one is the amount of labor consumed in the production of a commodity, and the other is the amount of labor that the commodity can command in the market. Finally, after the capitalist controls the means of production and the landlord monopolizes the land and natural resources, exchange value or value is divided into three components: wages, profits and rents. Therefore, labor determines value and then income determines value. Adam Smith's contribution to the theory of value is the first distinction between the meanings of use value and exchange value. But there are some defects. First, the connection between use value and exchange value is ignored. Second, the concept of exchange value and labor value cannot be distinguished.

David ricardo, as the completion of the British bourgeois classical political economy, critically inherited and developed Smith's value. Ricardo distinguished between value and use value. Value is the basis of exchange value, while use value is the necessary condition for producing value. The relationship between labor and commodity value is analyzed. This paper analyzes the meaning of direct labor and indirect labor, and distinguishes complex labor from simple labor when analyzing the labor that determines the commodity value.

The classical school always discussed and argued about the role of labor in the determination of value, and the real significance of the labor theory of value was established. The classical school never distinguished the difference between creating and using value and ignored the connotation of surplus value. Marx inherited ricardo's thought that labor determines value and gave full play to it. The only source of emphasizing value is living labor; Materialized labor only transfers its own existing value, but will not create new value. And Marx, using a more abstract method than ricardo, forcibly abstracted away the contradictions ricardo encountered, thus establishing a 100% labor theory of value.

Starting from the analysis of commodities, Marx explained the relationship between commodities and summed up the duality of commodities, that is, use value and value. Commodity is the unity of use value and value. Commodity is the product that condenses human labor and has value for people. He thinks that labor also has duality, namely concrete labor and abstract labor. Concrete labor refers to the different qualities of labor that produce certain use value. Abstract labor refers to the undifferentiated human labor apart from its specific form, that is, the consumption of human brain and physical strength in labor. The most important part of Marx's labor theory of value is the theory of surplus value. The main way for capitalists to obtain surplus value is to increase the amount of work and extend the necessary working time of laborers, which is also called "absolute surplus value". It is additionally through technical innovation, shorten laborer necessary labor time, lengthen surplus labor time, this is called "relative surplus value". Marx absorbed the excellent achievements of predecessors, especially inherited the classical school's views on the labor theory of value, and established the scientific labor theory of value. Marx's labor theory of value reflects the interests of the proletariat and the working people, and lays a theoretical foundation for revealing the changes of the capitalist mode of production.

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