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英国essay代写:The unity of natural sciences and humanities

2019-07-19 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The unity of natural sciences and humanities讨论了自然科学与人文科学的统一。自然科学与人文科学在对象、功能和本质三方面统一。自然界和人不仅互为对象,而且相互渗透,相互包含;自然界和人的相互包含决定了自然科学与人文科学的相互包含;实践的发展过程同时也是自然界与人日益融合、走向一体化的过程,必然使自然科学和人文科学日益融合走向统一。自然科学和人文科学的统一还表现在解释功能和批判功能的统一,改造自然与改造社会的统一,反映功能与预见功能的统一。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Natural science and humanities are unified in object, function and essence. Nature and man are not only mutual objects, but also permeate and contain each other. The mutual inclusion of nature and human determines the mutual inclusion of natural science and human science. The development process of practice is also the integration process of nature and human, which inevitably leads to the integration of natural science and human science. The unity of natural science and human science is also reflected in the unity of interpretive function and critical function, the unity of transforming nature and society, and the unity of reflecting function and foreseeing function. Both the natural sciences and the humanities should be understood in terms of the social nature of human beings.

Social essence of natural science knowledge not only from the intrinsic relationships between natural science and social needs and other natural science system and society system, the two aspects to examine the relationship between, but also from the unity of natural science and the humanities to examine, the unity of natural science and humanities in the object, function, nature of many aspects.

According to common understanding, the object of natural science is natural force, and the object of human science is human. But in the view of marxists, nature and man are unified, so to study nature is to study man, and to study man is to study nature. Marx thus put forward two propositions, one is "man is the direct object of natural science", the other is "nature is the direct object of science about man".

The unity of natural science object and human science object is reflected in the unity of nature and human. Insist on the unity of the natural world and human beings, the natural world and human connection to investigate. Marxists insist on looking at problems from the perspective of practice, believing that nature and man are in an objective relationship, that nature is the object of man, and man is also the object of nature. An object relationship works both ways. If a is an object of b, then b is also an object of a. "As long as I have an object, that object regards me as its object." In nature, the object of human's practical activities is the object of the expression of human's essential power. However, from the ultimate source, human's essential power still comes from the nature's essential power. "To say that man's physical and spiritual life is connected with nature is to say that nature is connected with itself, for man is a part of it." Nature expresses its own essential power by means of man, so man is also the object of nature, the object by which nature expresses its own essential power. Nature and man do not exist alone, but take each other as objects. Both nature and man are objective beings. Mechanical materialists cut off the objective relationship between human and nature and regard human and nature as non-objective existence, thus falling into the abstract understanding of nature and human. "The non-objective existence is a kind of non-realistic, non-perceptual, ideologically imaginary existence, an abstract thing."

From the point of view that nature and man are objects to each other, marxists have an integrated understanding of nature and man: nature and man include each other, nature can be regarded as a part of man, and man can also be regarded as a part of nature.

Nature is a part of human beings, which can be seen from two aspects: on the one hand, nature is the object of human knowledge and an indispensable link in cognitive activities; On the other hand, nature is the object of people's material activities, is an indispensable link of complete activities. Marx pointed out: "in the field of theory, plants, animals, stones, air, light and so on, on the one hand as objects of natural science, on the other hand as objects of art, are all part of man's consciousness, the inorganic world of his spirit, the spiritual food which man must process in advance to enjoy and digest. In the same way, in practical terms, they are part of human life and human activity." From this point of view, nature can be viewed as part of the human body. "In practice, the universality of man is manifested in the transformation of the whole of nature -- first as his immediate means of life, and secondly as his material, object, and instrument of life -- into the inorganic body of man. Nature, as such, is the inorganic body of man. Man lives by nature. That is to say, nature is the body with which man must continually associate in order not to die." Therefore, abstract understanding of the natural world can only be avoided by the contact person looking at it.

Man is also a part of nature. For people, also want to contact nature to understand. "Man is directly a natural being. Man, as a natural being, and as a living natural being... It is a dynamic natural being with natural force and vitality. They exist in people as gifts and talents, as desires." Man is not only a natural being, but also a natural object outside of himself. Without the external nature, his essential power can not be expressed, he is not a man. "To say that man is a physical, natural, living, real, sensible, and objective being is to say that he has a real and sensible object as his essence, as the object of his life; Or that one can only express one's life through real, emotional objects."

Man and nature are highly unified. On the one hand, "man's first object -- man -- is nature"; On the other hand, "the immediate sensible nature is to man directly the sensibility of man, and directly another man who is sensuously present to him." This high unity between man and nature is most evident in the material practices of man. In material practice, the subject is objectified, the object is subjectified, and man and nature are integrated together. Thus, humanized nature has both natural factors and human factors, and the two achieve a high degree of unity. "If industry is seen as the public display of the essential power of man, then the human nature of nature, or the natural nature of man, can be understood."

The unity of nature and human is also reflected in the unity of natural history and human history. In the pre-marxist view of history, we failed to see the role of material practice in human history and ignored the role of the relationship between man and nature in history. In fact, we ignored the role of nature in history. So in the old view of history, nature and history were disjointed and opposed to each other. Marxists saw the unity of natural history and human history. On the one hand, natural history is regarded as the history of natural evolution from natural to humanized. In this respect, natural history "is the process of nature becoming human". Human history, on the other hand, "is itself a natural history... A realistic part "is also a natural historical process.

Nature and man are highly unified as the research objects of natural science and human science, which determines the high unity of natural science and human science. And with the development of practice, this unity will become stronger and stronger. So Marx predicted, "The natural sciences will include the science of man, just as the science of man will include the science of nature, and this will be a science."

Natural science and human science have unity not only in research object, but also in function, which can be understood at least from the following aspects:

The unity of interpretive function and critical function. Some people think that the main task of natural science knowledge is to explain the natural phenomenon objectively, while human science knowledge is to express the attitude and opinion of the subject. Therefore, interpretation and criticism are the respective functions of the natural sciences and the humanities. This view separates the interpretive and critical functions of knowledge. In fact, both the natural sciences and the humanities have both functions mentioned above. Natural science theory itself has evaluation, it reveals the truth and objective law, which itself is a critical evaluation of the wrong theory that distorts the facts. Darwin's theory of evolution is itself a criticism of the creation of man. The truth of natural science develops in the struggle with religious theology. On the other hand, the humanities are also explanatory, and the critical function of the humanities is based on the explanatory function. Marxism's criticism of capitalist society is powerful because it correctly explains all kinds of contradictions in capitalist society and achieves scientific and revolutionary unity.

The unity of transforming nature and transforming society. Both the natural sciences and the humanities are based on and in turn serve the practical activities of people. Natural science is directly related to people's production practice, while humanities is more directly related to people's practice communication, but production practice and practice communication are closely related and inseparable, and production takes communication as the premise, which in turn determines the form of communication. Therefore, natural science itself has dual functions of transforming nature and society. As Marx pointed out, "natural science, through industry, increasingly enters man's life in practice, transforming his life and preparing him for liberation". On the other hand, the humanities also have the function of transforming nature. Human science not only integrates with natural science in the way of mutual penetration, but also directly or indirectly internalizes into human activity norms in various ways, making people's activities more reasonable and more conducive to the development of productive forces, thus indirectly serving for the transformation of nature.

Unity of reflecting and anticipating functions. Both natural science and humanistic science have the function of reflection and prediction. Natural science makes prediction by reflecting the essential laws of natural phenomena and serves people's life. Similarly, the humanities not only reflect and express social phenomena and people's social life, but also foresee the trend of people's activities and social trends. Foresee is based on rule on the basis of, the social development is also a process of natural history, is the decision and choice, and a more unified, people in social activities also can hold more than one of activity trends and direction, can be revealed through the continuous development of human science and perfect more correctly grasp the activity rule of people, and on this basis to make scientific forecast and service for people's practical activities.

In the view of marxists, both natural sciences and humanistic sciences are the manifestation of human's social nature. Therefore, natural sciences and humanistic sciences should be viewed in terms of the nature of contacts.

The humanities are the sciences of people who study society directly. They focus on the needs, wills, emotions, and desires of people. It is easier for people to understand and accept the connection between the human nature and the human nature, but for the natural science, it is difficult for people to see its connection with the human nature, so people tend to regard the natural science as the science only about the nature. People see natural science can be used in the industry, and thus to produce products useful to people, but people tend to stay in this step, only to see industrial, natural science is useful for people, namely only from the narrow usefulness, can satisfy the people's life need to look at the natural sciences, without the natural science itself is regarded as the embodiment of the people's essential strength. To which Marx pointed out: "the history of industry and industrial has the objective existence, is a book opened the book on people's essential strength, is sensitive to person's psychology, in front of us for this kind of psychology of people, yet it is not from its connection to human nature, and always to understand just from the appearance of the utility." "Even history only incidentally considers the natural sciences as a factor of enlightenment, usefulness, and some great discovery." Natural science and industry are only regarded as useful to man, and the reason lies in the division between man and nature, which makes it difficult for people to understand the nature and man, natural science and man's essence, and not easy to see their own essential strength in humanized nature.

Marx's views are still very important today. Many of us still measure science by narrow standards of usefulness, even coming to the erroneous conclusion that the natural sciences are useful and the humanities are not. This view superficially elevates the natural science, but actually belittles it. Because whether the natural science or the humanities, should rise to the human nature of the performance of the height in order to correctly understand. Since both the natural sciences and the humanities are manifestations of human social life and social essence, how can we say that the natural sciences are more useful than the humanities?

To really understand the nature of natural science, but also to see that natural science belongs to human nature, social. "The essential powers of the sensibility of the particular man, just as they are objectively realized only in natural objects, and only in the science of the nature of nature can they attain their self-knowledge." Humanized nature, as the embodiment of man's essential power, is the result of the application of natural science. Therefore, in humanized nature, people can see that natural science belongs to human nature. "The social reality of nature is the same thing as the nature of man, or the natural science of man."

In a word, it has become more and more common understanding for people to grasp the nature of science from the perspective of human, social and cultural, and to understand the nature of natural science and humanities from the perspective of human's essential power and human's liberation. As cassirer points out: "human culture as a whole can be called a process of constant self-liberation. Language, art, religion and science are different stages in this history. In all these stages man discovers and confirms a new power -- the power to build his own world, an 'ideal' world. ... All these functions are complementary. Each opens a new horizon and reveals a new aspect of human nature."

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