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essay代写-System philosophy

2019-07-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- System philosophy讨论了制度哲学的研究。制度哲学探究不但需重视阐释制度,同时还需更加关注优化制度。对于制度哲学的研究虽然是基础理论层面的,然而一直是以实际问题为引导的,为目前的制度变革和可持续发展奠定了较好的理论基础。所以,制度哲学的探讨即使不会直接地参与制度创新理论创建过程,但制度变革对象的培育,制度变革氛围的创建,制度创新理念的培养等其他非常重要的问题,存在于制度哲学研究的整个过程。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

System is one of the most important phenomena in human society, and it is unique to human society. The system promotes the continuous development of society, as well as human progress. After entering the modern society, the diversification of human needs, the complexity of social development, and the deterioration of the contradiction between people and society and between people have all demonstrated the important role of the system. Under such circumstances, it is very meaningful to understand and analyze the system. At present, economics, politics and culture have made a lot of exploration on institutions, but most of them pay attention to the relevant institutions in their own fields, and have not carried out corresponding research on institutions themselves. Further research on system implementation needs to be based on holistic analysis, that is, it needs to take this research as the cornerstone, break through the boundaries between disciplines, and carry out a new integration and holistic analysis from a macro perspective, which requires the implementation of system theory research from a philosophical perspective.

Because system plays an irreplaceable role in the continuous progress of modern society, the academic field has paid enough attention to the analysis of system problems. Many disciplines, such as institutional politics, institutional economics and philosophy of law, have carried out in-depth exploration on the corresponding meanings and operating principles of different types and levels of systems such as political system, economic system and legal system. However, the philosophical rational grasp and thinking of "system" is still lacking. From the perspective of world outlook and institutional element, it is of great theoretical significance to carry out holistic and philosophical analysis by referring to the efficient research methods of all disciplines and based on the theoretical achievements of all disciplines.

A system is a process or code of conduct that requires all personnel to follow. Is to achieve a certain role and specific objectives of social institutions or a large number of social norms. The primary meaning of a system is a procedure that requires members to follow along with the corresponding process. "System" contains the meaning of restraint and moderation, and "degree" has the meaning of standard and scale. The integration of "system" and "degree" means that the system is actually a measure to restrain People's Daily behaviors. At present, the system mainly has the following two forms: first, the formal system; Second, informal institutions.

The system is based on the interaction between people, people and society as the cornerstone of the establishment of a kind of completely open rules of action to limit the interests of personnel, is to maintain the trust system between people.

The system constrains people's social contact, and people need to have corresponding relationship with society and others through the system. The system constrains People's Daily behaviors, clarifies their roles, status, obligations and rights, etc. It also provides order support for the mutual communication between people, makes the communication between people have strong dependence and predictability, and promotes people to gradually recognize this mechanism and be willing to carry out the communication by themselves. Rawls once said, "the transparency of the content of a system ensures that the actors can understand the specific boundaries of their mutually expected behaviors and exactly what kind of behaviors are not against the system, and there is a common basis of mutual expectation." System, therefore, to limit human interaction process may happen opportunistic behavior or random behavior, so that the behaviour of others can be foreseen, provide very clear interpersonal communication architecture, and it is through the constraint random behavior and the related contradictions of ruling specification, deal with the contradiction between man and society, people, and then promote the cumbersome interpersonal link more predictable and easy to be understood. With the rapid progress of social economy, social relations have also undergone earth-shaking changes, which have seriously affected interpersonal communication. In this context, are people more open to communication or are they more distant? At the present stage, the society is highly open, and with the improvement of multiple benefit structures, it attaches more importance to the initiative and autonomy of the subject. How can the social system ensure the openness and clarity of social exchanges, and how can it improve people's sense of trust? This is the problem of how to make progress together with social development and institutional reform, and it is also an urgent problem to be dealt with in modern society.

Institutional economics is a discipline that regards institution as its main research objective. It emphatically analyzes the influence of system on economic development and economic behavior, and how the continuous development of economy reacts on the innovation of system. The exploration of institutional economics comes from the nature of enterprises written by coase. Coase's great contribution is to integrate the definition of transaction cost into the research process of economics and point out the different roles played by the market and enterprises in the links of economic exchanges. Demsetz, Williamson and other experts and scholars have made great contributions to the continuous development of this discipline.

The main body of system innovation, whether it is groups, individuals or government departments, are all personified benefit seekers. The most important motive force of system innovation is that the main body of system innovation excavates the benefit immediately and achieves the benefit at the same time. Interest drive is the endless power of institutional reform and the basic theory of new institutional economics on institutional development. North believes that "the reason for the change of the system is the change of preference or relative price". The change of preference and relative price will have a great impact on the source of interests, and then push some personnel to change the system norms to obtain those hidden benefits. Therefore, the internal factor of system change is that the subject wants to obtain as much "potential profit" as possible. The system is in urgent need of innovation precisely because under the influence of the existing system, some hidden benefits cannot be achieved. In order to internalize those hidden benefits or the interests outside the system, the institutional body should be promoted to carry out innovation. The above is the interest motivation theory of institutional reform and innovation. There are many factors that lead to the potential benefits, such as the change of market size, the change of regime base norms, the constant change of processing means and so on. All of them promote people to re-compare and evaluate the cost and benefit implementation of the current system, thus forming the change of institutional preference, that is, forming the requirements for a new system that can achieve the potential benefits.

A large number of systems play a very important role in stabilizing social order and promoting the continuous development of society, but they also have a lot of shortcomings. For example, the dual urban and rural layout system results in a lot of resources flowing into the city, which seriously affects the sustainable development of rural areas. Such unfair allocation of resources cannot achieve fair freedom and will inevitably lead to uncoordinated social development in the long run. Second, there are gaps in the system. With the continuous development of the society, in some aspects of social life, the original system can no longer be used, but the brand new management system and norms are not perfect, still in the area beyond the regulation of the system. There are all kinds of connections in this out-of-control void, and freedom often turns into self-interest and liberalization without any restrictions. Third, the system is not clear because of the lack of objective progress and cognition of the subject. Social development itself is a link of continuous improvement of norms and systems, in which there are repeated links from cognition to application and from application to cognition. Because all levels of society are developing rapidly and social relations are becoming increasingly complicated, it is difficult for people to have a clear and comprehensive understanding of them. Therefore, the established system cannot cover the contents of all levels and has a strong ambiguity. Fourth, the chaos and contradiction of the system. On the institutional level, it is the existence of various systems, especially the possible contradiction between the old and new systems. In addition, the development of multi-door and dual-track system in real life shows this point. In the context of contradictory systems and rules, People's Daily behaviors are often difficult to restrain.

First, institutional preferences need to change at two levels: first, from "efficiency first" to "emphasis on social equity"; Second, the transition from "stability and order" to "the common development of order and freedom". For the first kind of transformation, if the political system wants to achieve effective governance, it needs to achieve an organic combination of fairness and efficiency. For the second kind of transformation, China's most important task in a relatively long period of time is development, which requires order and stability. A system mechanism can only use efficient means to achieve the scientific distribution of resources, and then achieve a state of balanced development. At this time, the system can not only ensure the individual's legitimate rights and interests and a high degree of freedom, but also can regulate their daily behavior, promote the individual's own interests and public interests can not infringe on each other, maintain a harmonious and stable order.

Secondly, enhance the creation of responsibility system. Social behaviors, especially public management behaviors, often have corresponding rights and responsibilities. In the link of system creation, the improvement of responsibility mechanism can better play the role of restriction, norm, expectation and integration of the system.

The establishment of a system to publicize information related to national life, such as the publication of specific financial revenue and expenditure of government departments, and the publication of expenses and benefits of monopoly companies. The asymmetry and non-disclosure of information will inevitably lead to illegal trading, dark box operation and various illegal practices for personal gain, thus resulting in the unscientific circulation and unfair distribution of all social resources. Accurate, immediate and sufficient access to relevant information is the legitimate right to know of the people in modern society. In general, whether the information itself is completely accurate or not, such disclosure itself can usually generate some kind of constraint on the behavior of the subject concerned. If the public is concerned about the information published and discusses it on this basis to generate the corresponding social burden, then the important value of such publicity will be fully presented. Due to the lack of habit of information disclosure and the tedious game of various interests, efforts are still needed in the establishment of the system of information disclosure.

In the link of system creation, we need to pay attention to the reform of the system, and pay attention to the overall implementation and implementation of the existing system. For the former, the reform of the system not only leads to a great negative impact, but also provides opportunities for innovation. Although China has clearly defined the development policy of democracy and rule of law, market economy, harmonious society and advanced culture, however, in the road to the above goals, the formulation of all kinds of systems with Chinese characteristics is not clear, and the establishment of its representative system is open and dynamic to some extent. Institutional reform needs to stick to the initiative of the public, dare to try and explore comprehensively, and at the same time, it needs to be verified by both practice and theory. In the previous institutional system, the verified institutional innovation was accepted by people because its benefits were higher than the costs. Thus, when an increasing number of new systems were recognized by people, the institutional system itself gradually became scientific. At the same time, institutional innovation, because of its practical application in daily life, can better meet people's living requirements, stimulate people's enthusiasm for action, and gain people's recognition more easily.

Cultural philosophy always follows the holistic theory of culture and points out that "system is the most basic unit of culture". Under the institutional background, culture changes into the whole of people, environment and material through people's organizational behavior. In other words, culture is comprehensively presented as a comprehensive system. However, according to its different social functions, tools and organizational states, the system is divided into numerous small systems. The implementation and mastery of any system should be put into the whole culture. The existence of all systems depends on other systems or covers all the contents of institutional mechanisms; All institutional changes will have a very large impact on the whole institutional mechanism; It is impossible to separate a system from itself. Therefore, only from the perspective of cultural philosophy can a relatively complete system view be provided.

Analyzing the important value system from the perspective of cultural function shows the whole function of culture. Culture plays exactly the same role as instinct in essence, but it surpasses instinct and creates the important value of culture. The difference between culture and instinct is not an end, but a means. From the perspective of institutional culture, what people get satisfied is not the current instinctive needs, but a mature emotional attitude of the organization. In this emotional attitude, culture has an effect on all instinctive needs. In the whole emotional attitude, part of the whole needs to be completely submissive. People will be the overall satisfaction as an indicator of value, can eliminate the urge instinct. The compensation of culture for instinct also represents the restriction of instinct. People need to replace the requirement of instinct with the demand of culture. The elements of these two levels represent the continuous transcendence of culture over instinct. First, culture provides an effective channel for the realization of instinct, through which instinct can be realized. At the same time, it is completely legal only through the clear realization form of culture. Second, culture compresses and constrains the arbitrary instinct at the same time. The important function of culture is to guide and compress instinct, which is realized through the operation of various systems.

In the link of guiding and compressing human instinct, the system confirms the value of culture, that is, its own value. Therefore, the establishment of system not only shows the reconstruction of human beings and culture, but also needs to select the comprehensive value of culture in the corresponding system. In other words, in order to meet people's cultural needs and transition to some value requirements, at the same time need to verify their scientific. To create and achieve the cultural appeal is the core value of the system, which is actually an important choice. It is shown in the order of achieving various human needs, the distance of realization and the form of realization.

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