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英国essay代写:The scientific method

2019-07-09 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The scientific method讨论了科学方法。科学的方法包括系统的观察、测量和实验,以及假设的形成、检验和修改,这些假设可以在日常生活中引起许多变化,特别是在经济、政治、文化和生活方式方面。新的科学方法使欧洲的发展发生了巨大的变化,使欧洲在18世纪和19世纪成为世界的中心。此外,它对西方世界产生了深远的影响。因此,可以得出结论,科学方法是欧洲历史上最大的进步。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

scientific method,科学方法,essay代写,代写,paper代写

The scientific method consists of systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses, which can cause a lot of changes in daily life, especially in the economic, politics, culture and the style of life. This essay will cite some facts to know how the scientific method have a great influence in Europe. Finally, it will conclude the conclusion that the new scientific method has an important role in the development of Europe.

2.1 The rapid economic development

The new scientific method have promoted the economic development in Europe by enhancing the production efficiency.

During this time, Europe play an important role in the world, especially with the aid of the new scientific method. People make use of it to reduce the time and improve the production efficiency. For example, the industrial revolution, people do not satisfy the manual production low efficiency, how starts to try to find solution to enhance the production efficiency. For example, “manufacturers proved eager to introduce steam-driven machinery to increase output and gradually established factories to house the new machines and concentrate the labor of their workers. The agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century had enabled England to produce food more efficiently, freeing some agricultural workers to move to the new sites of manufacturing. ”(Lynn,655)It is a beneficial result to  Europe to set up the global market. When the European and American countries want to promote the exchange of goods and large-scale engaged in transportation construction, to expand overseas colonial plunder and market, the global transportation network has began formed .So, the new machines as one of the products of the new method play an important role.

Based on the development of economy, there are a great many person left their land and streamed into the city. “Industrial development spurred urban growth, yet even cities with little industry grew as well.”(Lynn,661)and “the introduction of steam-driven machinery, large factories, and a new working class transformed life in the Western world. Peasants and workers streamed into the cities. The population of London grew by 130,000 people in the 1830s alone.”(Lynn,653)Especially the women, they left the family and go to work. Following these dates, it is obvious that the new scientific method boost the economic development actually.

2.2 The improvement of the political system

With the development of the new scientific method, the social strength has a obvious change. The new scientific method accelerated establishment of European political system, such as the democratic system and the law conscience.

The effort of the new scientific method not only have a profound influence in the economy, but also reflected in politics. With the development of the economy, the authority needed modify their management and study the new political system to cater to the rapid economic development. So, democratic mechanism arises. This system provides a scientific, reasonable management system, which is a great progress in the human history.

In Western Europe, it has hidden all the elements of modern democratic system definitely. In the Germanic tribes, the people congress is the highest organ of state power. It has the right to decide war, peace, contracting and other tribes in the most important issue. People come to the meeting to strike weapon sounds to support their consent to scream and yell proposal, to express their opposition.

Tribal leaders are elected by all the people. In the Germanic people, between people and people are free and equal to each other. They have a right to determine the relationship of rights and obligations according to the traditional clan law. These forms of democracy and democratic consciousness are very primitive, but many clan during the democratic traditions are still preserved. The influences of the primitive forms have a profound impact on Western political development to this post, which makes people own a community authorization concept in their brain.

Medieval Europeans have a strong legal awareness, the concept of the rule of law, not only in England, France and Italy, in Germany, lagging behind the development of the country, also win support among the people. The state set up a sound legal system. Nobody can not change the law at will, including the authority. And the private property should be protected by law.(Voegelin,382)In Britain and other European countries, except the protection of private property, in accordance with the law, the procedural justice is also firmly rooted in people’s mind.

The sound law helps people to form the tradition of rule that firstly established the principle of judicial independence in the world.

2.3 The progress of the culture

The new scientific method promotes the prosperity of culture.

It can be learned from this date: “The shock of industrial and urban growth generated an outpouring of commentary on the need for social reforms. Painters, poets, and especially novelists joined in the chorus warning about rising tensions. Many who wrote on social issues expected middle-class women to organize their homes as a domestic haven from the heartless process of upheaval. Yet despite the emphasis on domesticity, middle-class women participated in public issues too.”(Lynn,653-654)So, there are a great many critics appears during this period, which recorded this great time and save a precious date for us.

Following the great changes, the whole society provide a new worldview to the people. People have set up the competition sense and a lot of literary works reflect this reality. In Europe, as the development of science and technology, it has passed through a dark period”. Especially in the technology, it once lagged far behind the western. But strictly speaking, the “dark period” is mainly in the medieval ages in prophase and metaphase. Christianity in its formation after one thousand years, a certain extent, destroyed the ancient Greek tradition of science, form the serious shackles of scientific development. At the end of the West Rome Empire, Christianity the state religion gradually established, and the early persecution of Christians, Christianity began to ban, persecuting other religions. In 390 ad, the emperor Theo Doss in Christianity as the state religion, burns Greek temple; Bishop de Ago DOS burns three hundred thousand Greek manuscripts. In 529 ad, Rome Empire Emperor Justinian seizes all the Greek schools including Plat on college. Science in the theocracy and the secular regime of oppression, are gradually into the theology of the slaves. After eleventh Century, with the Europeans have translated many ancient Greek, Arabic scientific works into Latin India and, after feeding the dark soul imprisoned Europeans, medieval European science begins to have great development, and in later centuries rapidly over the eastern countries, including Chinese.

For example, Mike Grassi recognizes that the rediscovery of Aristotle has a great influence on medieval philosophy and theology. These works, not limited to debate Aristotle——also strongly stimulated the problem of natural science. (Randall:p177-206) The Europeans of Aristotle’s theory, such as the Christian Church in the early stage of Aristotle thought and Christian belief and doctrine conflict, is not completely absorbed. Maybe the critics tend to have a sharp attitude to the theory, but even so, the development of the latemedieval technology have a great role in promoting the theory.

2.4 The change in the daily life

The scientific method improves the European people’s living standards and prompts the development of a whole spectrum of ideologies to explain the meaning of the changes taking place.

Based on the development of economy, the process of politic and the progress of the culture, people get rid of the shackles of nature and enter a tangled web of society itself. They give up the old views gradually and learn the new views to cater to the new social. Despite the emphasis on domesticity, middle-class women participate in public issues too: they set up reform societies that fought prostitution and help poor mothers, and they agitate for temperance, and join the campaigns to abolish slavery. Although in this process, people maybe still influenced by old ideas, the reality problems make them understand change is necessary step by step. If there is no the new scientific method, people would not have the advanced idea to confront the innovation and follow the tendency (Ackoff:362).The new worldview is very important because these changes are necessary. Change your mind to live, or you may lost.

3.0 Conclusion

The new scientific method has caused a great many changes in the development of Europe definitely which make Europe become the center of the world in 18 and 19 century. Furthermore, it has affected the western world profoundly. So, it can be concluded that the scientific method is a greatest progress in European history.

References:

Ackoff R L. Scientific method: Optimizing applied research decisions. 1962.

Lynn Hunt, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures ,2009.

Randall J H. The development of scientific method in the school of Padua. Journal of the History of Ideas, 1940: 177-206.

Voegelin E. The new science of politics: An introduction. University of Chicago Press, 1987.

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