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Essay代写:Democratic thought in ancient Greece

2019-07-01 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Democratic thought in ancient Greece,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了古希腊的民主思想。作为古希腊政治思想的重要组成部分,民主思想一直被广泛讨论着。在古希腊,不同的思想家对民主的见解和褒贬是不同的。有一些思想家大力鼓吹民主,鼓励公民参政,赋予公民尽可能多的民主权利;也有一些思想家对民主进行犀利的批判,认为民主会使自由走向极端,并提出混合政体。这些思想都在之后不同国度的不同历史时期得到不同程度的验证,并被后人改良、发展,影响深远。

Democratic thought,古希腊民主思想,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

Political thought as the result of political thinking activity is the direct reflection of people's political practice. Therefore, the content of political thought is determined by the content of political practice. Up to now, all human political practices since written records have been connected with social public power, namely state power, through or around state power. Therefore, the main and central content of political practice is the issue of state power. In the west, the earliest form of state was the ancient Greek city-state formed in the 8th to 6th centuries BC, where western civilization and western political thoughts were bred, leaving inexhaustible spiritual wealth to mankind.

As an important part of ancient Greek political thought, democratic thought has been widely discussed. In ancient Greece, a time of a hundred schools of thought, different thinkers hold different views on democracy. Some thinkers advocate democracy, encourage citizens to participate in politics, and give them as many democratic rights as possible. Other thinkers are trenchant critics of democracy, arguing that it polishes freedom and proposing mixed regimes. These ideas have been verified to varying degrees in different historical periods of different countries and have been improved and developed by later generations with far-reaching influences.

Greek democracy was built on a series of reforms, each of which raised the status of ordinary people. The clearly documented reforms began with solon and ended with Christian, when Greek democracy was formally established. Although solon's reform was neutral, it was full of democratic colors. He issued the "relief order" to liberate the citizens who sold themselves into slavery because of debt, forgive all debts and restore their citizenship. And gave all adult Athenian citizens the right to participate in the civic assembly, established a moderate democracy with restrictions, laid the foundation for the democracy of slavery in Athens. Democrat politician Pericles explained what democracy in Athens really meant. In Athens, he says, is a democratic political system, because the power is in the hands of all citizens, rather than in the hands of a few people ", so that "every person concerned, is not only his own affairs, but also concerned about national affairs, is the most busy with his own affairs, for general political also is very familiar with, this is our characteristics: a person who doesn't care about politics, we don't say he is a person who pay attention to your affairs, and said he had no transaction." The election of public officials is also based on the idea that "no one will be written off politically because of poverty, as long as he contributes to the country." This not only complements solon's policy of distributing democratic rights according to property in the reform, but also provides more opportunities for citizens to participate in politics from the system, which has a positive impact on the enhancement of citizens' awareness and social responsibility of citizens, as well as their ability to participate in politics, and is more conducive to the selection and appointment of virtuous and capable city-states.

As an encyclopedic scholar and thinker in ancient Greece, Aristotle was also a great advocate of democracy. In his book politics, he discussed different regimes from the nature of citizens. Aristotle defined a citizen as "a person entitled to participate in judicial affairs and institutions of authority", that is, people entitled to participate in jury courts and public assemblies. Because these two institutions are the places where the highest power of the city-state resides, the right to participate in these two institutions is a real citizen. By definition, Aristotle believed that equal participation in politics is the basic citizenship of citizens, and those who have no right to participate in politics are not citizens, that is, citizens should enjoy democratic rights and participate in the political life of the city-state. Modern democracy aims to resolve conflicts through the participation of the people, to bring many people with different opinions and interest demands into the system, and to solve problems through negotiation, participation and consultation. Secondly, affirming the collective wisdom and strength of the people, Aristotle said, "it seems that the government should be entrusted to a few good people rather than to the majority of the common people. There are some difficulties here, but there are also some truths in it. It seems that this is the preferable system. For the most part, each of the others is often ill advised; But when they are united as a group, they are often more than a few good minds. A multi-party dinner can be better than a single party. Similarly, if many people contribute an opinion and a thought; the crowd assembled in one assembly is like a strange man with many limbs, many eyes and ears, and many characters, and many intelligenties." This view affirms the virtues of a democratic system in which the collective is always stronger than the few.

The political thoughts of ancient Greek sages were developed through criticism and debate, and the discussion of democratic thoughts also experienced various debates. Although democratic thoughts were the mainstream political thoughts at that time, they were questioned and criticized by many scholars and thinkers.

In fact, until democracy was approved, many political scientists were negative about it. Mr Socrates argues that democracy is flawed, that politics requires wisdom and that the lottery is "very stupid" to make outsiders rule. After his teacher died in the democratic system because of the ignorance of the people, Plato, Socrates' student, denied the democratic system vigorously. Plato believed that only people with wisdom and noble character are qualified to govern, while the poor have low quality and narrow vision, and they only rely on their own interests, while ignoring the happiness and justice of the whole nation. In a democracy, a country leaves the election of its ruler to chance, which is like a ship whose pilot is drawn by lot from passengers and is destined to capsize soon. Not only that, but people of low moral character are not able to properly use the values of freedom and equality they advocate, but enjoy the freedom they are not familiar with in a strange way. It is also a democracy in which some innocent people are exiled, many citizens' property is looted, their demands are increasingly fulfilled, and their divisions become more and more visible. Plato also pointed out that freedom is the greatest advantage of a democratic regime and the foundation on which it is built. However, if a democratic city-state "pursues freedom regardless and excessively", it will also destroy the social foundation of democratic regime and lead to the emergence of totalitarian politics. Excessive pursuit of freedom regardless of consequences will lead to the subversion of social values and right and wrong. Extreme freedom will lead to the subversion of social value order. Secondly, social existing order is destroyed, instead of anarchy, the excessive pursuit for freedom, the order is lost, the society is in a state of anarchy, and this kind of anarchy also "penetration into the private family life", "go to" infiltrate into animals, even pecking order no longer in the family, my father afraid of son, went to the street, people must give cattle pass.

Cicero analyzed the monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. He believed that "the capriciousness and imprudence of public assembly make power transfer from the majority to the minority." So a democracy is not the best, under a monarchy, everybody else is excluded from governing power; there was no guarantee of civil liberty in an aristocratic system; In a democracy, all people are equal, which is unfair. So Cicero says, "no single type of the three is ideal, and only the form of government that mixes all three equally is superior to any single one." In Cicero's thoughts, the basic ideas of "populism" and "tyranny of the majority" already exist, and its significance and function are very important.

Democracy in ancient Greece was a direct democracy, different from representative democracy in western countries today. Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which all citizens participate, as opposed to indirect democracy. That is to say, everyone is both the ruler and the ruled, and the citizen is the master of the country and has the right to directly participate in the management of public affairs. This kind of management does not need intermediate link, it is direct participation.

The democracy of ancient Greece was a limited democracy, a very narrow democracy in which the enjoyment of political rights was limited to the group of citizens, but slaves, gentiles and women, the majority of the population, were excluded. Democratic rights, in the final analysis, are the privileges of civil society, which actually serve the economy of slavery and the slave-owning class.

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